Mecca is a holy topographic point of Muslims in Saudi Arabia where it is believed that the prophesier Muhammad lived and taught more than 1,300 old ages ago. Mecca is the holiest metropolis in Islam. Mecca had become an of import topographic point in the history by the clip when Prophet Mohammed ( peace is upon him ) was born in approximately 570 AD. Mecca, the holy topographic point has fallen with annual wane and flow of pilgrims as a consequence of turning Muslim community in the World and finally the spread of Islam. The economic position of the metropolis greatly depends on the big figure of pilgrims sing every twelvemonth and their adjustment, eating and transit. ( Ahmed Z.U. 1992 ) .
Millions of Muslims visit Mecca every twelvemonth to do a spiritual pilgrim’s journey on the 8th through 13 yearss of Dhu al-Hijjah, which is the last month of the Muslim twelvemonth. This spiritual tourer activity or the journey is called the Hajj which signifies one of the Five Pillars of Islam ( Memish Z.A. et al 2002 ) . The Islam counts on all the Muslims that one time in their life-time they are expected make this journey if they are physically and financially able. There is an tremendous crowd of the participants in the Hajj. The program to Hajj starts months or even old ages before. Makkah, the holy country or otherwise known as the haram is a topographic point where any type of force is non permitted. The word haram has a double significance as forbidden and sacred and is a symbol of pureness. It is the chief Muslim Mosque. The Grand Mosque is at the Centre of Makkah and the sacred Zamzam good inside it. In the cardinal courtyard of the Mosque is The Kaaba, whereby all Muslims face when they pray. Traditionally, Prophet Adam ( AS ) built the Kaaba which was later rebuilt by Prophet Ibrahim ( AS ) and his boy Prophet Ismael ( AS ) , as a reproduction of God ‘s house in Eden. Muslims considers The Kaaba as the most holy topographic point on Earth. It has been taught in Muslim legend that the shrines are built by the antediluvian spiritual patriarchs Ibrahim and Ishmael utilizing foundations which were foremost laid by Prophet Adam AS.
Prophet Mohammed ( peace is upon him ) was born in Makkah and was descended with the Holy Quran, and since so the extension for Islam was launched. In the bosom of the metropolis is the Holy Mosque in the Centre of which the Holy Kaaba is located, The Maqam of Prophet Ibrahim, his boy Ismaiel ‘s rock ( May God bless them ) , Zamzam good in which H2O has been pouring from 100s of old ages, and Safa and Marwah where Muslims do Saie. There are other holy shrines of Mina, Muzdalifa, and Arafat near Makkah. Arafat is located at the Mount Arafat where pilgrims perform the chief rite of Hajj as the twenty-four hours of Arafat.
Hajj is scheduled harmonizing to the lunar calendar and so moves 11 yearss earlier each twelvemonth on the Gregorian calendar. Due to seasonal fluctuation over clip, the Hajj occurs at different times each twelvemonth ( Yamin M. et Al 2009 ) . It becomes hard in summers as the temperatures in Saudi Arabia are really high. Unlike other Saudi Arabian metropoliss, Mecca retains its warm temperature in winter, which can run from 17 & A ; deg ; C at midnight to 25 & A ; deg ; C in the afternoon. Summer temperatures are considered really hot and interrupt the 40 & A ; deg ; C grade in the afternoon dropping to 30 & A ; deg ; C ( 86 & A ; deg ; F ) in the eventide. Rain normally falls in Mecca in little sums between November and January.
Tourism at Mecca
Mecca, the holy metropolis in Saudi Arabia is believed to be the Centre of the Islamic universe. The journey to Mecca as the Hajj is popular to the Muslims all over the universe but the Mecca travel is out for non-Muslims. There are one million millions of people coming to Mecca for Hajj from all over the universe. The Hajj in Mecca is the largest pilgrim’s journey in the universe.
The Mecca metropolis is Saudi Arabia is progressively called Makkah. It is similar to the pronunciation of the Arabic word than does the English interlingual rendition called Mecca. Non-Muslims are non permitted to come in the premises of Mecca, Saudi Arabia at any clip of the twelvemonth due to the fact that the Mecca travel and the Hajj are merely intended for Muslims. It has happened in the yesteryear that several non-Muslims have entered Mecca ; the punishments of it are rather rough including exile and gaol clip.
Tourism in Mecca involves some progress planning. There is a particular visa required by every Muslim who wishes to do the pilgrim’s journey to Mecca. There is a valid visa required to come in the Hajj evidences. In instance of Saudi citizens, permission is necessary. The foreign pilgrims intend to execute Hajj applies for a visa by supplying information and undergoing some medical scrutiny. The visa is granted by Saudi authorities by blessing of the Hajj direction in Saudi Arabia. Each pilgrim is assigned to a group of Hajj direction called Munazzim one time their visa is granted. Munnazim is responsible for their travel and adjustment agreements in the Hejaz ( Yamin M. et Al 2009 ) . In add-on, a missive from the local mosque saying that the individual is a Muslim is besides required. Womans who are under 45 old ages of age must go with a male or a mahram considered being the caput of the household. There should be a cogent evidence of their relationship. On the other manus, adult females over 45 old ages of age must transport a permission missive from her hubby or her male parent along with the cogent evidence her being a portion of the Mecca touristry group. The visa to go Mecca does non allow to go outside of Mecca and if anyone wants to go other metropoliss, they must use for extra visa.
The pilgrim’s journey to Mecca commence at the Jeddah airdrome, a big metropolis in Saudi Arabia. As the touristry in Mecca is really popular during the Hajj month, there are two particular terminuss for the people geting to Mecca. There are direct coach services from the airdrome to Mecca Saudi Arabia.
On reaching to the metropolis of Mecca, the Moslems have to follow traditional rites, called Umrah. These traditions should be followed by all the pilgrims. The rites that are acted out in the incidents of the Quran are comparatively difficult to execute or instead complex and takes about a hebdomad. It is of import that the pilgrims must have on the traditional pilgrim’s journey vesture followed by a walk in the part of the Kaaba in a counter clockwise way several times. After this ritual, following comes Sa’ey which factually means run whereby the pilgrims walk back and Forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah, the part where the married woman of Prophet Abraham ran recklessly in hunt of H2O for her boy. It has been written in Quran that there is a fountain that appears between the hills ( Ahmed Z.U. 1992 ) .
Other rites during the Hajj include traveling to Arafat. This is the the topographic point where Mohammed gave his concluding discourse. The rite is followed by imbibing H2O from the Zamzam well which is inside the Great Mosque. It is believed by all the Muslims that their God provided H2O to Hajar and Ismail at this well when they were sauntering in the desert. These two people are the cardinal figures of Islam. Mecca travel is a meaningful once-in-a-lifetime experience for all the Muslims.
There have been many touristry issues in Mecca that arise during the Hajj period. Many incidents have happened during the past old ages doing loss of 100s of lives. It is estimated that there are 1.4 billion Moslems in the World and each one must see Mecca for pilgrim’s journey at least one time in his or her life-time if they can. It is all the manner really hard to pull off 1000000s of people in Mecca during the month of Hajj.
Stampedes are likely to happen at the Hajj because of the immense crowd and an extraordinary force per unit area. The persons may falter thereby precipitating an full stampede. Massive crowds walking from one topographic point to the other topographic point of the pilgrim’s journey, do a stampede. There is a terror when the pilgrims jostle to avoid being trampled ensuing in 100s of deceases. For illustration, the ceremonial of lapidating the Devil is really crowded and unsafe and so can ensue in serious crowd accidents. The undermentioned incidents occurred due to monolithic crowding at the Hajj.
2nd July, 1990 – Arafat fields of Hajj: A stampede inside a prosaic tunnel taking out from Mecca towards Mina, Saudi Arabia and the Plains of Arafat led to the deceases of 1,426 pilgrims.
23rd May, 1994 – 270 pilgrims were killed in crowd during the lapidation of the Devil.
9th April, 1998 – Incident at Jamarat Bridge where 118 pilgrims died and 180 were injured.
5th March, 2001 – During the rite of lapidating the Devil, 35 pilgrims were trampled to decease.
11th February, 2003 – 14 pilgrims died in a haste during the lapidation of the Devil ceremonial.
1st February, 2004 – 251 pilgrims were killed and 244 people were injured in a stampede during the lapidating ceremonial in Mina.
12th January, 2006 – 346 pilgrims were killed and more than 289 were injured in Mina on the last twenty-four hours of the Hajj while executing the ritual ramy al-jamarA?t.
Disease spread is besides a touristry issue in Mecca. This could be explained on the fact that there are 1000000s of people from many states sing Mecca, of which some of them may hold hapless wellness systems, taking to the spread of epidemics. If there is a disease eruption during the Hajj, this could do the job worse when they returned place and go throughing the infection on to others. There have been such incidents in the yesteryear where the disease has spread among the pilgrims doing terrible wellness jobs. One such disease, called meningitis has been given a prompted response from the Saudi authorities. There were many concerns about the disease after its international eruption at Hajj in 1987. Due to these planetary eruption of certain types of meningitis in old old ages, it is now a visa demand to be immunised with the ACW135Y vaccinum before reaching. Every twelvemonth, the Saudi authorities publishes a list of needed vaccinums for pilgrims, which for 2010 besides includes xanthous febrility, infantile paralysis, and grippe.
Trauma and other fatal events
The word Hajj defines motion. There is a batch of pandemonium in transit during the Hajj. The pilgrim’s journey moves on pes in dense traffic for hours at a clip. During the Hajj season in Mecca, there is excessive traffic congestion. Other issues in touristry are fire incidents that happened in old old ages.
December 1975 – Fire due to explosion a gas cylinder in a collapsible shelter resulted in the decease of 200 pilgrims.
15th April, 1997 – Fire in a collapsible shelter in Mina killing 343 pilgrims and 1,500 injured.
In order to forestall such unsafe incidents, the land has replaced all the collapsible shelters and the collapsible shelters are now fireproof with a assortment of which are made up of aluminum frames with fiberglass. The hazard of fire is now considered much lower ( Memish Z.A. et al 2002 ) .
Management in Mecca during the Hajj, managing 1000000s of people during a specific month is non an easy undertaking. The functionaries of the authorities of the Saudi Arabia should hold done more to forestall such calamities. It is claimed by the authorities of Saudi Arabia that such monolithic crowd are really unsafe and hard to pull off, and that they have taken a figure of stairss to forestall jobs. There are betterments of touristic installations at Jeddah, Mecca and Madinah.
There have been figure of stairss undertaken to get the better of the hurdlings and the incidents in the yesteryear. One of the controversial important stairss in action inculcates new system of enrollments, passports, and visas to command the mass flow of pilgrims. This system intends to promote and suit visitants going for the first clip to Mecca, while curtailing repetition visits. Such a system was protested by the pilgrims who have the desire and wants to execute the Hajj several times and they have been biased about this system, but the Hajj Commission has stated that they see no replacement if farther incidents and catastrophes are to be prevented.
As a consequence of the stampede in 2004, there have been concerns and considerations by the Saudi governments. The governments have aboard a large building work in and around the Jamarat Bridge country. Additional entree ways, overcrossings, and exigency issues were built, and concrete walls were designed to replace the three cylindrical pillars leting more pilgrims to hold a coincident entree to them without contending for place and deprived of crowd. A multi-million-dollar undertaking has been designed and put into action by the authorities to spread out the span to five degrees.
For crowd direction, many organisations are utilizing RFID french friess to track and supervise people and merchandises. This high engineering is an effectual manner of identifying and assisting people in pressing state of affairss ( Yamin M. et Al 2009 ) . These RFID carry some PDA ( clear informations ) which can be used for medical exigencies and for describing lost pilgrims with their groups. The device should be linked to the event database so as to ease the retrieval and updates as and when required.
The disease spreads and recent eruptions of H1N1 virus ( swine grippe and bird grippe ) have made the crowd direction more challenging. For the direction of diseases, as mentioned earlier, there are set of medical scrutinies and immunisations to be undergone by the pilgrims to be registered in the event database.
Therefore, the direction of Hajj can be sum up in three stages. Phase one is about the necessary planning to form Hajj and to mean pilgrims before going to Saudi Arabia.
Second stage refers to the Hajj procedure whereby different direction stairss are undertaken to command the issues in manner of the Hajj procedure and the last stage directs to the steps undertaken to ease smooth return of pilgrims to their several finishs.