1. List and describe at least three ( 3 ) engineerings that allow an person to research citizens’ private informations. A engineering that allows an single to research private information is the Global Positioning System ( GPS ) . This “is a pilotage and precise-positioning tool” ( Glasscoe. 1998 ) developed in the early seventy’s by the Department of Defense. Although GPS was originally designed for the military. its applications have extended into the public sector to supply research workers the specific location of an person ( Glasscoe. 1998 ) . A malicious engineering that can be used to research an individual’s private informations is spyware. In general. it is package that can be loaded on an cyberspace ready device. such as a computing machine or smartphone. with the exclusive intent of assemblage and conveying one’s private informations to another individual. Spyware is “designed to be hard to take. ” and the aggregation and transmittal of information can be completed without the individual’s consent ( Microsoft. 2012 ) .
In contrast to spyware. societal networking services are freely provided with and individual’s private informations. Social networking services are web based platforms built to ease communicating between cyberspace users. “When making an history user [ s ] unwrap private information about their societal contacts and involvements by including friends. concern associates. and companies in their networks” ( The White House. 2012 ) . Servicess such as “Facebook. the largest societal web service” ( Halbert & A ; Ingulli. 2012 ) can garner tremendous sums of private informations that is associated with an single including: “written updates. exposures. picture. and location information” ( The White House. 2012 ) . 2. Discourse the advantages and disadvantages of public entree to this information. both for the research workers and those who are being investigated. “Personal information is valuable … [ and ] … companies spend up to $ 2 billion a twelvemonth to roll up that information” ( SENGUPTA. 2012 ) .
Retailers use the informations to aim advertisement to consumers based on their geographic location. personal demographics. or involvements. Annually personal informations is used to bring forth every bit much as $ 145 billion in on-line gross revenues ( The White House. 2012 ) . Personal information is frequently shared freely in a reciprocally good relationship between an person and research workers. Those who are being investigated may subscribe up for online services which deliver them free content. such as music or games. Consumers are “pay [ ing ] for the service by holding to have targeted ads” ( Microsoft ) from research workers. “Security failures affecting personal informations … can do harm” ( The White House. 2012 ) to both the research worker. and those being researched. If a researcher’s information is breached ensuing in the release of private informations the organization’s repute could be tarnished. Subsequently there would be fiscal impacts to the research worker as consumers and concern spouses sever their relationships.
On the other manus. those being researched may be discriminated against due to misdirecting information or autumn victim to “potentially life-disrupting individuality theft” ( The White House. 2012 ) . 3. Determine what measures citizens can take to protect private information or information they do non desire to be disclosed. First and first. citizens should “carefully read all revelations. including the licence understanding and privateness statement” ( Microsoft. 2012 ) prior to downloading any package. shareware. or freeware to their computing machine or smartphone. Second. they should decently protect themselves utilizing updated anti-virus package and firewalls on their electronic devices.
Finally. citizens should be familiar with privacy-enhancing engineerings such as “Do Not Track” which enables persons “to exercise some control over how 3rd parties use personal informations or whether they receive it at all” ( The White House. 2012 ) . 4. Discourse a federal jurisprudence that grants the federal authorities the legal right to do private information on U. S. citizens available to the populace. and whether or non you agree with this jurisprudence. Any individual has the right to bespeak entree to virtually every federally held record. Enacted in 1966. The Freedom of Information Act ( FOIA ) is federal jurisprudence which “provides public entree to all federal bureau records except for those records … that are protected from revelation. ” Nine freedoms and three exclusions to the FOIA prohibit the release of information in relation. but non limited to “information affecting affairs of personal privacy” ( U. S. Department of Justice. 2009 ) . In the aftermath of Watergate Congress enacted the Privacy Act of 1974 to protect citizen’s private informations in the face of turning concerns of “illegal surveillance and probe of persons by federal agencies” ( “The privateness act. ” 2010 ) .
This federal jurisprudence restricts revelation of authorities held records which personally identify persons. and increases an individual’s right to obtain and amend authorities held records kept on themselves. The Privacy Act besides establishes a codification of “fair information patterns which requires bureaus to follow with statutory norms for aggregation. care. and airing of records” ( “The privateness act. ” 2010 ) . As Americans we “have ever cherished our privacy… [ and ] … we have the right to be let alone” ( The White House. 2012 ) . Much more than the right to solitude. Americans have the right to freely take part in commercialism without the dearly-won menace of individuality larceny. We should be empowered with the freedom to seek employment or heath attention without favoritism.
Federal Torahs should allow citizen’s peace of head that our personal information it protected. and we have a pick sing when and what parts of our personal information made available to the populace. 5. Determine whether there are “electronic privateness laws” that can forestall others from holding entree to “private information” every bit good as how effectual they are. Laws protecting electronic privateness include “the 1968 Federal Wiretap Law. as amended by the Electronic Communications Privacy Act 1986 ( ECPA ) . [ which ] make it illegal to stop. unwrap. or entree messages without authorization” ( Halbert & A ; Ingulli. 2012 ) .
As with the FOIA there are freedoms to the ECPA which eliminate “protection from communications that are readily accessible to the general public” ( Halbert & A ; Ingulli. 2012 ) and current federal jurisprudence may non protect all of an individual’s private informations. As of 2012. 47 States have Security Breach Notification ( SBN ) Torahs. These Torahs vary from province to province. nevertheless they “promote the protection of sensitive personal data” ( The White House. 2012 ) which is non presently protect by federal jurisprudence. In February of 2012. the Obama Administration presented the Consumer Privacy Bill of Rights to Congress. This Bill of Rights efforts to set up a much needed national baseline to protect citizen’s private information and acts “as a design for privateness in the information age” ( The White House. 2012 ) .
Glasscoe. M. ( 1998. August 13 ) . What is gps? . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //scign. jpl. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. gov/learn/gps1. htm Halber. T. & A ; Ingulli. E. ( 2012 ) . Privacy and Technology. In Law & A ; Ethical motives in the Business Enviorment ( 7th ed. ) . Mason. Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning. Mao. C.
( 2012. March 28 ) . Columbia concern jurisprudence reappraisal. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //cblr. Columbia. edu/archives/12047 Microsoft. ( 2012 ) . Microsoft. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. microsoft. com/security/pc-security/spyware-whatis. aspx SENGUPTA. S. ( 2012. February 04 ) . Should personal informations be personal? . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. nytimes. com/2012/02/05/sunday-review/europe-moves-to-protect-online-privacy. hypertext markup language? pagewanted=all & A ; _r=0 The privateness act. ( 2010 ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. justness. gov/opcl/1974privacyact. pdf The White House. ( 2012. February 23 ) . Consumer informations privateness in a networked universe: a model for protecting privateness and advancing invention in the planetary digital economic system. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. whitehouse. gov/sites/default/files/privacy-final. pdf U. S. Department of Justice. ( 2009. November ) . Your rights to federal records. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //publications. usa. gov/epublications/foia/foia. htm