Thesis: An Emerging Strategic Vision on Philippine Native Mythology in Modern Times: The Mythology Class and Trese Darna. Captain Barbell. ZsazsaZaturna. FacificaFalayfay. these are the ace heroes that we all know of in this coevals. To us Filipinos cartoon strips were non that of an importance because we consider them as “baduy” but because of the plants of Mars Ravelo and Gerry Alanguilan they gave a shocking moving ridge to the Filipinos that cartoon strips created by Filipino creative persons can be of universe category quality and can non be considered as “baduy” . Recently Philippine creative persons are making cartoon strips that speak about Philippine native mythology to be able to relay the narrative to the new coevals such as The Mythology Class by Arnold Arre and Trese by Budjette Tan and KajoBaldisimo. Before we start with that we should reply this inquiry foremost. “What is mythology? ” It is an organized aggregation of narratives ( i. e. . “myths” ) by which we explain our beliefs and our history. Beneath the story-lines. myths normally confront major issues such as the beginning of humanity and its traditions. and the manner in which the natural and human universes map on a profound. cosmopolitan degree.
Other myths. nevertheless. seem simply to narrate the deities’ day-to-day activities — their love personal businesss and pleasances. their green-eyed monsters and furies. their aspirations and strategies. and their wrangles and conflicts. ( Stout. J. H. . 2012 ) We have two in writing novels that we can proudly state that is truly Filipino. We have Trese by Budjette Tan and KajoBaldisimo. Trese is a horror/crime komiks rubric created by author Budjette Tan and artist KajoBaldisimo. It follows the narrative of Alexandra Trese. a cryptic investigator that trades with offenses of supernatural beginning chiefly happening in the capital part of the Philippines. Alexandra stairss in to protect the streets of Manila when the constabulary can’t trade with the supernatural outlandishness that appears. Whenever she’s needed. Trese arrives. frequently called in by Captain Guerrero. the Commissioner Gordon to Trese’s unconventional Batman. a adult male who seems singularly predisposed to tilt on her cognition and specific accomplishments. Supported by two cryptic and evidently charming animals of unsure powers – the ever fashionable Kambal. she’s ever at that place to protect Manila from supernatural menace.
Comparisons to Hellblazer and Vertigo were supplanted in this narrative with a familiar feel – this has the glorious graduated table and import of Ellis and Cassaday’s Planetary. with Trese operation as the religious and supernatural defender of Manila. presenting her universe safe and sound. no affair what it takes. whilst we get to look into alongside. all the Wyrd and fantastic her mystical being has to offer. It fuses Philippine horror mythology with in writing storytelling and dark art in stating the narrative of Alexandra Trese. a investigator who specializes in supernatural instances ( hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Trese. 2012 ) . Even though they mentioned here that it is a horror amusing one time I have read it I realized that even if I read it during 3 a. m. I wouldn’t be truly frightened. We have grown up hearing about the different animals in the dark that seem to frighten kids.
We don’t venture out in after 6 p. m. because we might be kidnapped by dwendes or tikabalangs. These cartoon strips revived my involvement in these animals and realized that they are portion of our civilization. One would believe that you were non born in the Philippines if you have non heard about the animals of the dark. Detective novels have been really interesting in and work outing offenses ever have a particular topographic point in my bosom. One of the facets that should be noted is that Trese is female lead character and she has supernatural existences assisting her every clip she solves a instance. Trese is a character that one can’t forget. She is our ideal superhero with the right sum of butt-kicking. gun hiting and charming rolled into one. With the 2nd novel. it can be noted that Trese solves single instances and most of the instances are non that truly connected to each other it brings a batch of suspense when we realize that each instance really involves the supernatural. These are modern offenses but so it gets a supernatural turn in the narrative. It is besides noteworthy that even in the other dimension there are besides good and bad animals. There are those who help Trese like the Kambal and the bad character which is Talagbusao.
We have to read books two and three of Trese so here goes for book 2. When twilight arrives in the metropolis of Manila. that’s when you become the most likely quarry of the condemnable underworld. Kidnappers and stealers will be the least of your concerns. Beware the felons that can’t be bound with handlocks nor harmed with slugs. Beware the 1s that crave for your blood. those who hold your bosom ransom. and the 1s that come to steal your psyche. When offense takes a bend for the Wyrd. the constabulary call Alexandra Trese ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. goodreads. com/book/show/8490939-unreported-murders. 2012 ) . The four narratives are brilliant and are rather related to metropolis life. We presently are populating near the ill-famed promenade and one couldn’t aid but inquire if the serpent boy is really living and kidnaps reasonably misss in dressing suites. If they truly exist why do they be? One could ne’er reply that inquiry and that makes it more absorbing. There was besides a reference of Heather Evangelista which is besides sounds like Heart Evangelista.
Bing in a Catholic state the Godheads of Trese infused the morality issue of abortion and to whatever happens to those unwanted babes. In that instance. we being a Catholic or being in a Catholic state was being emphasized. Case 6 was scariest for me. It showed a batch of living deads waking up and creeping out of their Gravess. It was decidedly a in writing dainty for us. Again this showed morality. like retaliation doesn’t truly make anything good and that being apathetic is non truly a good attitude particularly if you have the authorization to make something about the position quo. They all got what they wanted in the terminal but we have to be reminded that retaliation doesn’t needfully bring us any good. The 3rd book is by far my front-runner because it tells the narrative from the beginning to the terminal. The short narratives are interwoven and they are by so amazing. It answered a batch of inquiries on who are the Kambal and to why did Alexandra Trese start being who she is. One of the best parts was when they met the twins Basilio and Crispin. From the get downing up to the terminal. we could experience the demand to truly go on reading and inquire more inquiries on what happened to the different characters.
It was really barbarous and barbarian. We could hold hoped for a better stoping for the war God Talagbusao. but it all worked out in the terminal. Nowadays. blending the old thaumaturgy and new engineering makes one relate to the yesteryear and the present. When Trese trapped him in the practical universe. it made sense since in there at least he will be so occupied and he won’t be able to by and large ache a batch of people it is merely in the practical universe and his ne’er stoping thirst for blood could be addressed to and achieved. Almost all of the parts of the series could be readily applauded it’s merely that one thing. The route of baptism for Trese. it wasn’t on ink. A batch of old ages were skipped and it would hold been better to demo what the other universe looks like and what challenges Trese faced. Although his brothers were shown. we have yet to cognize what their other functions in her life are.
Disappointment loomed when looking at the following page they didn’t show the exact ways on how she was baptized as a warrior priestess but on the other manus they could utilize that scene to construct up that narrative for other novels of Trese and these would likely be in the non so distant hereafter. The 2nd book is Mythology Class by Arnold Arre. The universe was in pandemonium. people didn’t believe in Bathala. it was after all it was a new coevals. Where people googled when they ask inquiries. station remarks in Facebook when they want to state something. and text when they want to pass on. It was clip for the people to recover their beliefs to heroes that our ascendants told us. The universe needed new heroes to protect them from unexplained animals. It all started when Datimbang the married woman of Bantugan. Kubin the Ibalon warrior. Aili one time retainer of Alunsina ( that has the ability to see the heads of Bathala’s people ) and Sulayman the Mantapuli hero. They were tasked to develop new heroes from different coevalss.
The selected individuals were non that difficult to happen after all because they possessed the different qualities that heroes have. Each of them were given a different dream that Tala the white Enkanta gave them. demoing them that they have to fall in a Mythology Class. and since all of them were U. P. pupils it wasn’t difficult for Tala to garner them. Nicole was chosen because she has the cognition of the animals and heroes that her gramps told her when she was still a kid and she was considered oculus of the group. Angie. Bob. and Edward where chosen because of their inventiveness that the Kingdom of Ibalon possessed. Lisa seeks replies because of her wonder that makes her particular. she subsequently on learned the linguistic communication of the animals. Gina subsequently on revealed that she had Nuno ( an Enkanto ) . Lane was chosen because of her thought transference that the great Diwatas have. Misha was chosen because of her unafraid attitude that attracts the animals and easy for them to capture. And in conclusion. Gio. Rey. and Sam have warrior inherent aptitudes that shall shortly support the group against danger.
They had to make assignments. but non merely ordinary assignments the first undertaking they had to make was to capture a Kapre at Bulacan. they are docile animals they scare people but non ache them. It was successful because of the music prepared by Angie. Bob and Edward and by the dance that Lane performed they captured the whole Kapre herd. The following missions were capturing a legendary bird known as IbongAdarna that made a kid comatose. a Shokoy in Pasig River that creates ruddy tide during copulating season. a tiyanak in the Philippine General Hospital that was frightening the patients and Manananggals in Tondo. Manila that were circling the worshipping Mayari. Goddess of the Moon. They had captured 872 Enkantos in merely 4 months and their last test was to capture a Tikbalang. kid of the dark. which was so violent that they had a trouble in capturing it ; good thing Nicole tamed the Tikbalang and subsequently on became there ally.
After the tests they rejoiced and celebrated. they were heroes now that even the universe didn’t know of. But Datimbang. Kubin. Aili. and Sulayman had to travel to the hereafter to go on their quest in developing the new coevalss. Unwittingly after the tests they had gone through. the Aswangs that Lam-ang should hold disposed of had escaped and finally viciously killed Lam-ang. They seek retribution to the universe ; they want to govern the universe. They learned to utilize arms and now they are merely waiting for the right clip to assail. During their quest Nicole and Kubin easy fell in love with each other. after how many centuries of contending the Ibalon warrior eventually found his one true love. But he had to travel. to go on the quest. for it was a journey that they must make to protect the universe from spiritual animals. It was non merely Nicole and Kubin but besides Misha and Rey who were one time in a relationship but they ended severely. Rey and Misha were ever reasoning every clip they were together but because of the journey they had. they finally were falling once more for each other.
Then the clip eventually came when the Aswangs were capturing them one by one. First. Misha was dragged into a hole in the fitting room of the promenade while Lane eventually saw Siring and opened her eyes for the danger that will come upon them. Even Datimbang didn’t have the clip to fix for the onslaught they did to her. Gio. Rey. Sulayman. Edward. Angie. even Nicole was about devoured by the monster good thing Kubin and Tikbalang rescued her right on clip. Datimbang was saved by Nuno by acquiring rid of the bad spirit that went inside her organic structure ; it was the clip that Gina eventually asked a favour to Nuno after all the adversities she had to digest while Nuno was remaining at her topographic point. Kubin fought the Aswangs with all his might to protect Nicole from them but he couldn’t aid it they were excessively many for him. they kept on approaching and eventually he fought a 1 on one against the Aswang warrior and he was injured severely.
Nicole tried her best to get away from the Aswangs in the chopper ; she was kicking. punching. and shouting. Finally she bit the Aswang and she was thrown outside the chopper. she was so afraid that she closed her eyes and believed that person or something will salvage her from her quandary. When she opened her eyes it was Bantugan’s manus that saved her and maintaining her alive. subsequently on Lam-ang extended his custodies and asked Nicole to take it. Meanwhile the captured victims witnessed the waking up of Sitan. a mammoth snake. which will banquet on to them because of its millenary of slumber. The 1s that was left behind which was Datimbang. Gina. Lane. Aili. Bob and Nuno started an conjuration and used the gifts that Lam-ang gave for them to be able to get the better of the Aswangs which are a foliage taken from the first tree planted by MariangMakiling that will protect anyone that ensnared by the weaponries of danger ; the wooden amulet of Dumakulem the huntsman God that unleashes a active spirit ; the seed of the sky-god Idianale that calls upon the mighty powers of the E ; the fabric of Manganguay that shall make pandemonium and confusion amongst the enemy ; and in conclusion the flower of wealth gives reward to a exhausted psyche.
While Nicole witnessed the prognostication that Bathala has seen in their battle and it is merely them that can get the better of the Aswangs. By the aid of the gifts of Lam-ang they were able to get away from the Aswangs and were easy get the better ofing them small by small. They attacked and fought with all their might to get the better of them. but they were excessively many they kept coming from everyplace assailing them. Then they saw a latest hi-tech theoretical account of auto and used it to get away the Aswang but the Aswangs were relentless they used the auto of Rey to trail them but as Bathala prophesied they escaped and defeated the chasing Aswangs. It was clip for Kubin to get the better of the snake. Kubin was about defeated he was wrapped the lingua of the snake with its mammoth dentitions that could kill an blink of an eye. It was Nicole that cut the lingua of the snake by taking her pointer to slit the lingua for Kubin to give the concluding blow and eventually stop the biggest conflict they had encountered. They celebrated and Nuno gave them the concluding gift that Lam-ang gave them the flower of wealth and gave all his gold to them and joined the quest of Datimbang.
They all shared the gold that Nuno gave them and invested in a batch of things. Angie and Edward had a music saloon. Misha and Lane had a Coffee store with a combination of luck stating. Gina even opened herself in come ining into a relationship. Rey. Gio. and Bob continued their pursuit by capturing felons and called themselves Vigilantes. Rey and Misha were eventually together and they argued less than earlier. Nicole was heartbroken because Kubin was go forthing. she was really lonely despite she got an first-class class in her thesis paper that she failed during her first defence she was still losing the individual that saved her life a batch of clip. But Bathala had bigger dreams for them after how many yearss of believing about Kubin. Tala appeared and pointed where Kubin was waiting for her. Kubin stayed with Nicole but they need to hold 10 kids merely to replace Kubin in his pursuit as Datimbang told him. This narrative is a authoritative narrative of friendly relationship. love narrative and escapade. It is one of the narratives that tell us about Philippine mythology during modern times.
It besides used UP which is quite the topographic point for the foibles and oddnesss. It is rather common to believe that there are truly other supernatural existences at work in that topographic point. The scene of the narrative makes one believe that in every campus and university. there are pupils who have magic and do these sorts of things in secret. A mix of modern equipment and thaumaturgy working together can do them truly good to read and bask particularly for pupils. The secret plan was rather gratifying since we were able to read the complete in writing novel without breaks and hold. Love is present in any narrative and the changeless spat between the lovers is a amusing alleviation to the chilling environment. It is so gratifying and easier to understand since they were adolescents and about all of the personalities in the book are so true to life and you can happen these personalities in either yourself or in your friends.
It besides tells us to be more interested in the different characters of our ain mythology ; we ever have the nuno SA punso and the of all time powerful tikbalang. Incorporated to the narrative are sometimes existent life state of affairss and the different immoralities that are of all time present in our universe. There was the building of the biggest promenade and they brought out the immorality in the banga which are the aswangs. Those aswangs are like blood suction lamias but so they eat human flesh and non merely the blood. They besides tried to wake up their greatest maestro which is the serpent. Now. every clip there is large immoralities involved they normally use the animal serpent likely it has a mention to the Bible wherein the immorality behind the ruin and ejection of Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden was really a serpent. Often the narrative takes an unexpected bend and it was wholly excessively good to be true. Like for illustration on the portion that in merely a mere four months they were able to capture everything. Now that was merely excessively good to be true but so they still had one major conflict on which they were non that prepared but they were still able to get the better of the powerful aswang kin. Not merely that. they were besides able to get the better of the snake.
They were so a set of misfits but so even though they are rather different from each other each individual has a different feature that is every bit of import in doing their quest successful. They each have their ain narrative to state. In the terminal. when they received a batch of gold. they used it for good and donated it to a batch of charities but even though they donated already. they still have a batch left so they were able to make whatever they want and build their ain concerns. The narrative besides didn’t merely go forth us hanging it gave a good stoping to each of the characters and gave them a narrative to travel on and go on. Both of the narratives really reflect each of our mythologies. We must retrieve though that most of our myths don’t have official rubrics since they were passed down through unwritten tradition so the myths have different versions with little fluctuations of the narrative. We read these narratives and we meet the characters.
We enjoy reading them. One of the things that are truly appreciated in both of these narratives are that they are proudly our ain. the drawings and artworks have a Filipino manner and unlike foreign cartoon strips which have colour in their drawings. what sets it apart is that they are both black and white. Although colorss are more alluring to the eyes. sometimes apparent black and white takes us back in clip where these things where really believed in instead than cool-coloured images now. In utilizing this scheme it created an cheap manner for the pupils to reconnect to our ain mythology. In this manner to the writers can present these characters to us without holding to worry about the added concern of what colours the supernatural existences in the Philippines were. This besides raises the inquiry of what do they really look like with coloring material? Do they still have brown tegument or are dark skinned like the Negritos?
Both of them really didn’t answer that inquiry. So so is it the author’s manner of exciting our encephalons and to utilizing our imaginativeness to look for the replies? If that is the instance. so it by and large got us interested and in this manner we can concentrate more on research and read more on our mythology. Graphic novels are easy to read and understand both of them used easy to understand images but the artworks of Trese where more defined and broader. It used darker lines and elaborate images. It is more bloodstained and the battle scenes where better. However. in mythology category they were more on the sketch manner and used irregular lines and amusing imitations. They were like infantile drawings. On the narrative mythology category focused on love and escapade where as in Trese. she didn’t have a love involvement. Trese focused on the enigmas that she has to work out. on the different escapades and on the animals on that she has to kill.
She focused on guns and on different ways on how to kill the animals. In Mythology category they were more dead set on merely capturing the animals and in speaking to them in a good manner so that they would travel back to their original universe. Communication and proper ways of speaking to the “engkantos” was the manner of the set of pupils. Trese was more on the shooting now and speak subsequently. She has this precise manner of demoing that she is in-charge and her every word should be followed. She is her ain foreman and everybody must follow her. Now she does the best in her every move. Every move is calculated and precise. In Mythology category. the friendly relationships that they developed were rather good and even though they have different features they used their different characters to do a good squad. One of the funniest parts of the book was when they tried to capture the tikblang. It was high on drugs so it had unbelievable velocity and it couldn’t experience any hurting and anything. It was screaming. It truly had amusing parts.
The lone thing that was rather amusing in Trese was in book 3 when one of the twins regenerated his arm and he said it tickles. It was amusing but so it was besides bloodstained. conceive ofing the different organic structure fluids and you have to see the whole thing grow. It was amusing yet hideous to see. The books that we have read truly improved our position on Philippine mythology. It made us re-oriented on what is truly our ain and non to be fixated on another countries’ mythologies. One of the grounds for this is the advertisement that others are ever better than us. We have great narratives and we can truly bask them so much. Then why make some people don’t take our mythology that earnestly? Harmonizing to Jocano “Many colleges and universities do non transport a class on it in their course of study ; alternatively. they have Greek and Roman mythologies as major offerings. ” ( Jocano. F. L. 1969 ) Well. possibly pedagogues have a small mistake on that but so we have to believe about it in a bigger image. Although. cognizing a batch about another country’s mythology is of import. excessively.
We have to see that cognizing our different mythologies and larning from them could do us more socially ready for the hereafter. We learn from the different narratives of our mythology. Roman and Greek mythology have longer narratives and heroic poems and are more organized. In the Philippines. our mythology is made up of different short narratives which sometimes differ from one part or island from another. One of the grounds that besides affect this is our outlook. We normally read the narratives in cartoon strips and we tend to see cartoon strips as “baduy” . That’s why we don’t want to cognize these. In world we read the other countries’ books and we talk about them more. Nowadays. there are a batch of films that show Egyptian. Roman and Greek mythologies particularly since Rick Riordan books started to be on the bestseller’s list on about every state. We read more about them and happen it more interesting.
I truly besides appreciate that in writing novels have invaded and introduced to the younger coevals. In this manner. since the superb creative activity of the cartoon strips in the new coevals. we are able to research our ain mythology. One remark though on the binding of Trese’s book was that it is easy removed and even though it was merely opened a small spot. It was like falling apart already. That is one of the things that they need to better on the cartoon strips. We need to better the quality of the in writing novels so that it could globally competitory and we could compare it even to the international best seller of Rick Riordan’s books. These narrations are basic to our societal tradition ; they constitute portion of our societal heritage. ( Jocano. F. L. 1969 ) It is considered to be really of import because they constitute portion of our societal heritage. It is ever natural for a individual to seek to understand and inquire inquiries to our society. In our civilization. we have a batch of experiences that sometimes we can’t understand why it is go oning to us.
When we try to look for the replies to the things that are go oning around us. we try to happen the interior significances. We have a batch of myths in our state but so merely a few people would believe of these as an of import portion of our civilization. Most of us would believe that these are merely narratives that our abuelito or abuelita would state us to coerce us to halt playing under the Mangifera indica trees near the house. The chilling “nuno SA punso” or the “tikbalangs” or the “dwendes” that attempt to steal kids these chilling narratives were ever told with muted voices to add to the play and accomplish the chilling consequence. We would believe that these are merely narratives. Actually. they are narratives but they are non merely narratives. These myths tell us what we are as portion of the community and our society. When we were immature. we loved to hear these narratives because they besides give us a batch of lessons in the terminal. We are besides fascinated to cognize that there is another universe besides the 1 that we are populating in. One of the most absorbing things that are in our native mythology is the names of the different Gods and goddesses.
The names are derived from the existent names that we name our universe now. For illustration in the Visayan version of the creative activity. we can see the names of Likalibutan. Liadlao. Libulan. Lidagat and Lihangin. Upon reading these names. the realisation of how names were being used for the account of the natural universe were truly utilised during the clip of our ascendants. Our ascendants non merely made understanding the different elementals easier they besides made it really interesting. In the Filipino civilization where the household is the most of import thing. they used a household so that we could associate to it. One of the interesting noted upon reading the mythology of the Philippines is that arranged matrimonies between outstanding households are rather common. In the Philippines. a narrative is non a good one if there is no scoundrel. Even though how much a household tries to protect its kids from the horrors and the immoralities that lurk around in the corner. it still creeps easy on the household.
One illustration of this is Likalibutan’s addition of power and his end to derive more power. Although he already had a batch of power he still wanted to derive more power and in making so he went gathered more power and support from his brothers and tried to kill his ain gramps to derive control over everything. Deriving more power has been a driving force to a batch of people in our society. This drives them to make bad things or to make greater things in order for them to make this end. Although power is good sometimes excessively much of it can convey us to our ruin. Respect in our seniors is besides highlighted. underlined and in capital bold letters in our mythology. A extremely well-thought-of individual is given much regard and ever has a high place in the society. This is besides reflected in our society today. I can state the writers have somehow succeeded in the battle to do creative persons of in writing novel be acknowledged of their universe category creative activities. Last September 7. 2010. Senator Lito Lapid filed a measure on the fifteenth Congress Senate Bill No. 2485 which is the PHILIPPINE NATIONAL GRAPHIC NOVEL ARCHIVE ACT OF 2010.
It is “An Act to Establish the Philippine National Graphic Novel Archive. Allowing Fundss Therefore and for Other Purposes” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www. senate. gov. ph/lis/bill_res. aspx? congress=15 & A ; q=SBN-2485. 2010 ) . Although the measure is still pending in the commission and there are no marks of its advancement. This is a direct citation from Gerry Alanguilan website about this subject. On how this measure will be “The proposed National Graphic Novel Archive would play a cardinal function in documenting and construing Filipino art and experience in the field of in writing novels and in actively lending to the development of the country’s in writing novel industry. It would be tasked to roll up. shop. preserve and do available autochthonal in writing novel stuffs relevant to humanistic disciplines and civilization in the state. The Archive would endeavor to do the locally produced in writing novels accessible to the widest possible audience in the state and promote and heighten the development of the industry to guarantee its sustainability. ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //gerry. alanguilan. com/archives/2906. 2010 ) .
Even the really popular Gerry Alanguilan commented on the measure. He said that “The National Library’s path record every bit far as cartoon strips and in writing novels go isn’t precisely promoting. Remember this is the same bureau that refused to give ISBNs to comics because people at that place believed cartoon strips had “no research value” as if it’s within their power to decline any publication ISBNs ( it’s NOT ) . I’ve besides heard studies from komiks aggregators of how gathered editions of printed komiks were allowed to decompose and thrown out because they had no infinite. To hold them be in charge of something like this doesn’t seem like a smart move. It seems to me that many people at that place have no regard for komiks or even understand their historical and cultural value. A drastic alteration has to happen in their staff and in their policy before I can swear them with something like this. ” ( hypertext transfer protocol: //gerry. alanguilan. com/archives/2906. 2010 ) .
Jocano. F. L. ( 1969 ) . Outline of Philippine Mythology. Manila: Centro Escolar University Research & A ; Development Center Stout. J. H. ( 2012 ) . Mythology. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. trans4mind. com/jamesharveystout/mytholog. htm # What is mythology? ( 2012. August 27 ) . Trese. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Trese Tan. B ; illustrated by Baldisimo. K. ( 2012 ) . Unreported slayings ( Trese # 2 ) . Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. goodreads. com/book/show/8490939-unreported-murders Lapid. L. ( 2010 ) . PHILIPPINE NATIONAL GRAPHIC NOVEL ARCHIVE ACT OF 2010. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //www. senate. gov. ph/lis/bill_res. aspx? congress=15 & A ; q=SBN-2485 Alanguilan. G. ( 2010 ) . PHILIPPINE NATIONAL GRAPHIC NOVEL ARCHIVE ACT OF 2010. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: //gerry. alanguilan. com/archives/2906