The Gallican rite emerged from Gaul in the 5th century C. E. . and was used in Western Christianity through the 7th and 8th centuries. being bit by bit replaced by first the Ambrosian and eventually the Roman rites. The chief textual beginnings for the signifier and content of the Gallican rite are the letters of St. Germanus of Paris. though a assortment of beginnings. from the British Isles to Spain. are used for the rite’s Reconstruction. While the Gallican rite is grave. dramatic. and “overlaid with a profuseness of points. ” it is besides unstable and flexible. since no official Ordinary for the rite exists.
The Eucharistic Rite II. by contrast. is laid out in the Episcopalian Book of Common Prayer. and though some parts of it vary. these fluctuations are besides contained within a extremely structured Ordinary signifier. This rite. which unlike the Latin Gallican rite is conducted in the people’s slang and is presently in usage among Christians. is simple and streamlined. incorporating fewer supplications and distinguishable elements than its Gallican opposite number. The rites mostly contain the same general elements. with a few noteworthy exclusions. though frequently in a different order.
The chief differentiation between the rites is that Rite II is more populist than the Gallican rite. necessitating a higher degree of engagement in worship by the people. This can be traced to the Protestant influence upon Anglicanism. every bit good as the distinguishable constructs of God that are implied in the Eucharistic offices. In the Gallican rite. the supplications of the people or intercessions are led by a deacon or choirmaster who specifies the demands for which they are to pray. In Rite II. though the specification of demands still occurs. intercessions are led by laic members of the fold.
“This accent on the ministry of the temporalty in public worship underscores the fact that the Bibles. and so the worship of the church. are for the whole people of God and non merely for the clergy. ” In both rites. the people sometimes respond during supplication with the Grecian term Kyrie eleison. or ‘Lord have mercy. ’ which is one of the lone traces of non-vernacular supplication nowadays in the Rite II Ordinary. Kyrie eleison besides occurs during the Rite II entryway. or readying for worship. when the Canticles are sung. The Canticles used in Rite II vary between Gloria in excelsis. Kyrie or Christe eleison. and Trisagion.
These Song of songss are sung by the people. whereas in the Gallican rite. Song of songss are performed either by church officers or ‘three immature male childs. ’ The Gallican rite. like Rite II. uses Kyrie eleison and the Trisagion. but alternatively of Gloria in excelsis. it includes Benedictus. besides called the Canticle of Zacharias. In Rite II. after the Canticles. a Collect is recited before the scriptural lessons commence. By contrast. the Collect occurs toward the terminal of the Gallican rite. as portion of post-Communion supplication. but before the dismissal.
Despite the disparate locations of the Collects. they are preceded in both rites by supplication ( though in Rite II. there is a anthem in between ) . Unlike Rite II. the Gallican rite has no supplications dividing the vocalizing of the Antiphon and the Canticles. and so the Gallican entryway provides a clip of solemn yet aesthetically enjoyable experience that acts as a readying for the soaking up of the scriptural lessons. The activities of the fold during this clip are minimum. whereas in Rite II the fold participates in singing and praying from the really beginning of the service.
This suggests that the public presentation of the Gallican rite was more brooding than that of Rite II. and that interior silence on the portion of worshippers was considered a more appropriate readying for theological acquisition than was talking. It farther suggests that the function of the people in the Gallican rite was less of import than in Rite II. The act of reading and hearing lessons is similar in both rites: the format is about the same. and in both instances primacy is placed on the Gospel reading. There is. nevertheless. a cardinal difference.
The Gallican rite comprehends three lessons: a lesson from one of the prophetic texts in the Hebrew Bible. a reading from one of the New Testament Epistles. and eventually the Gospel. the reading of which is preceded by a emanation and a Sanctus Sung by church leaders or clerks. Eucharistic Rite II. as laid out in the Book of Common Prayer. does non stipulate a reading from the Hebrew Bible. In fact. it explicitly leaves this out. observing that. “one or two lessons. as appointed. are read” but supplying merely two official lesson markers. one for the Gospel and one which specifically refers to an Epistle.
A reading from the Hebrew Bible is officially optional. but the double. instead than treble. signifier of the Ordinary suggests that it is discouraged or at least de-emphasized. The de-emphasis of the Hebrew Bible here points to a theological distance between Anglicanism and the Western orthodoxy of mediaeval times. when the Gallican mass was employed. Without the influence of the Hebrew Bible. the construct of God in Eucharistic Rite II becomes less violent. anthropomorphous and judgmental.
The Gallican accent on prophetic texts points to a sense of God as extremely critical of worlds and their civilizations. and willing to penalize full civilizations for their evildoings. The marginalisation of this facet of God in the Rite II reflects the cultural. as opposed to the prophetic. nature of the Anglican tradition. and indicates a extremely intellectualized apprehension of God. The Gallican rite. by including Hebrew Bible readings. reflects a more bodily apprehension of God. which is invested with fright and self-critique.
On the other manus. the Anglican rite contains a formal confession of wickedness. between the supplications of the people and the peace. which the Gallican rite does non look to hold. Alternatively. harmonizing to Thompson. the Gallican rite contains “a prayer-form called apologia sacerdotis—a long and intensely personal avouchment of wickedness and unworthiness on the portion of the celebrator. ” The wickednesss of the people are taken on by the celebrator. proposing. paradoxically. both a deeper investing of authorization in the celebrator and a demand for the celebrator to near his office with low humbleness.
The priest does non pray “with outstretched weaponries. but with custodies folded in the Teutonic gesture of court and submissiveness. ” The accent on the congregation’s personal confession in Rite II reveals its democrat and Protestant character. while the Gallic apology sacerdotis reveals both a sense of dictatorship and. as with the prophetic Hebrew Bible readings. a theological inclination toward self-critique. This difference in confessional supplications is besides reflected in the rites’ differing relationships between the discourse. or homily. and the people.
Neither rite specifies a passage between the Gospel reading and the discourse. though. in the Gallican rite. a emanation and a vocal precede the Gospel reading. Though the Book of Common Prayer refers to no such emanation. some Episcopalian services do incorporate one. Similarly. though non specified in the Ordinary. the kids of Episcopalian folds are frequently removed before the sermon of the discourse. The neophytes in the Gallican rite. by contrast. are dismissed after the preachment and the subsequent litany. and their dismissal is of import plenty to be considered a formal portion of the service.
The Gallican dismissal is followed by a symbolic shutting of the church doors. which connotes the protection of the Eucharistic elements and the enigmas of religion against individuals who are unfit to detect them. whether they be neophytes or foreigners to the Christian religion. There is no reference in Rite II of shuting the doors or officially disregarding neophytes. proposing one time once more that the religion expressed in Rite II is more populist and less autocratic than Gallican religion. Once the infinite for the enigmas is secured. the Eucharistic elements are brought in and the offertory begins.
There is no clip set aside here. as in Rite II. for the congregational recitation of a Creed or declaration of religion. In Rite II. the discourse is instantly followed by the Nicene Creed. proposing that the celebrant’s words—and therefore the office of the celebrant—require engagement and avowal from all trusters. The absence of any congregational response to the Gallican homily suggests a more autocratic feeling. in which the priest’s address is adequate to transport the full group toward Communion with God.
The procedure of Communion in the Gallican rite is more luxuriant and formal than that of Rite II. It contains a short expression. or Anaphora. a Sanctus and a post-Sanctus supplication taking into the recitation of the words of Institution. followed by a post-mysterium supplication affecting offering of the Eucharistic elements. several supplications and vocals and a Benediction. All of this occurs before the fold receives the Eucharist. Rite II contains many of the same elements—prayers both by the people and the celebrator. the vocalizing of Hosanna. and. after the words of Institution. the Lord’s Prayer.
But the Gallican rite is more complex. while the Rite II Communion is streamlined. While the Gallican rite contains a multiplicity of supplications. it does non look to stipulate the presence of the Lord’s Prayer in the Eucharistic service. This is radically different from Rite II. where the recitation of the Lord’s Prayer is cardinal to idolize. Conversely. the pre-Communion Benediction specified in the Gallican rite does non look in Rite II. Both rites involve anthem during the breakage of staff of life. and include a post-Communion supplication.
One difference in the response of Communion. which can be attributed chiefly to rites’ different temporal locations. is that. in the Gallican rite. adult females would hold covered their custodies with stuff in order to have the elements. while work forces would hold received them with bare custodies. Both rites conclude the Communion procedure with a dismissal. though in the Gallican rite this is spoken or sung by the priest while. in Rite II. it is shared between priest and fold.
While it is obvious that Rite II has been formed by elements from the Gallican rite. and the two reflect one another on many degrees. the few noteworthy fluctuations that do be state volumes about the theological and cultural differences of the two versions of Christianity represented by the rites. Rite II’s de-emphasis of the Hebrew Bible’s prophetic texts indicates a more soft and intellectualized apprehension of God. while the God represented in the Gallican rite is more bodily and unsafe. animating fright and self-critique in the congregants.
The difference between confession supplications is besides important. since it reveals both the self-critical and the autocratic facets of Gallican religion. Overall. it is clear that Eucharistic Rite II is informed by a sort of populism. in which worship is centered chiefly on the people. instead than the celebrator. The Gallican rite stimulates silence in the fold. and allows the celebrator to talk for them. while Rite II calls upon the people to talk for themselves. Plants cited The Book of Common Prayer.
Church Hymnal Corporation. 2001. Duchesne. L. Christian Worship and its Development: A Study of the Latin Liturgy Up to the Time of Charlemagne. trans. M. McClure. New York. New york: Macmillan. 1919. Holy sacrament with Notes: Rite II. Cincinnati. Ohio: Forward Movement Publications. 1992. Jenner. Henry. “The Gallican Rite. ” In The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 6. . erectile dysfunction. Charles Herbermann et Al. New York: The Encyclopedia Press. 1913. Thompson. Bard. Holy eucharists of the Western Church. Minneapolis. Manganese: Fortress Press. 1980.