Finish can be defined from both demand and supply side position points. Buhalis defined finish from the supply point of position as a geographical country, good defined that visitants understand as a alone entity with a selling and be aftering political and legislative model. Leiper ( 1995 ) defined finish looking for the demand point of position as topographic points where people travel and decide to remain for a period with the thought of experience certain characteristics or features. It can travel from a state, through geographical countries, communities, islands or metropoliss to little vicinities, what matters is the finish to be good defined. For the analysis of a finish image it is indispensable to cognize what means finish and which its boundary lines are.
Benidorm has been chosen in order to analyze its tourer finish image. Benidorm is a coastal metropolis located in the state of Alicante, Spain. Its strategic location on the Mediterranean Sea seashore has made this metropolis one of the chief tourer countries of Spain. Prior to the 1960 ‘s, when the touristry started its development in Spain, Benidorm was a little small town, nil to compare with today ‘s metropolis that with a tourist-oriented economic system is one of the most of import vacations resorts in Spain ( Web Turistica de Benidorm, 2009 ) . This metropolis has entree, adjustment, attractive forces and comfortss, the four features that Baloglu and Mangaloglu ( 2001 ) pointed out as necessities to be considered a touristry finish.
The election of Benidorm it is non inadvertent. On the one manus, it is a metropolis with a big tradition as a vacation finish, both for the Spanish tourers and for the international 1s and it still manages to pull tourers all around the universe. Furthermore, there is a broad difference in the age of the tourers ; it goes from immature people to retired twosomes traveling through households. Which perceptual experiences have so different people about Benidorm? Is the same for all of them? On the other manus, the tourer development theoretical account of Benidorm has been questioned over the old ages. Some Spanish writers ( i.e. Freire, 2008 ; Giner, 2007 ; Lopez Sobejano, 2004 ; Universidad de Alicante y Autonoma de Barcelona, 2009 in Benito, 2009 ) agree that Benidorm ‘s tourer theoretical account is rather good, one of the most profitable and long lived theoretical accounts in Spain. Other writers ( i.e. Hickman, 2007 in McGrath, 2007 ; Hidalgo, 2008 ; Linstead, 2007 in McGrath, 2007 ; Narvona, 2004 in Hosteltur, 2004 ) inquiry it and believe that it is non respectful with the environment, with the local population, with the local civilization and it is marked by seasonality. On the other manus, besides should be reference that the media have a immense influence in finish images. On the 22nd July 2009 in a Spanish Television programme, ‘Comando Actualidad ‘ , a study that gave a bad image about Benidorm was aired ( El Pais, 2009 ) . Make this programme damage the finish image of Benidorm? How much influence could this programme has in the tourers ‘ image creative activity procedure? Have any influence in the finish image that tourers have about Benidorm the old visits? In order to reply these inquiries an analysis about the image of Benidorm should be undertaken. Therefore, two different groups of tourers should be selected in order to compare if they have similar or wholly different images of the same topographic point. The two groups are traveling to be immature British tourers from 18 to 25 old ages old and retired British tourers.
Before start the analysis it is of import to be cognizant of the touristry current state of affairs in the country of survey. Benidorm is the biggest vacation resort in Spain. Easily accessed from all mayor European metropoliss, this topographic point is the most popular vacation finish in summer and besides throughout the twelvemonth when Europeans arrive looking for a spot of Sun in the cold winter. Flag with its skyline, Benidorm offers 100s of hotels, bars, eating houses, java stores and discos in add-on to different types of amusements without bounds ( CostaBlancaSpainorg, 2009 ) . Benidorm ‘s national tourer overnights represent merely the 43.4 % of the sum while the international tourer overnights represent the 56.6 % in 2008 ( Generalitat Valenciana- Conselleria de Turisme, 2008 ) . Benidorm is the lone topographic point in Spain where international tourers are more than national tourers. In a more in deep analysis of the international tourers ‘ consequences it should be reference that British tourers represent the 80 % of the sum of tourer Benidorm in 2008 ( Observatorio Turistico de la Comunitat Valenciana, 2009 ) . As it can be seen by these consequences, international touristry and in particular British touristry is the chief beginning of income that Benidorm has.
The profile of the British tourers that visit Benidorm is: people between 25 and 64 old ages old, whose chief signifier of adjustment are non hotel constitutions, that travel in regular flights and whose information about Benidorm comes from friends, relations and from the cyberspace. Their chief activities are traveling to the beach and walk. They besides visit museums and memorials ; love the gastronomy, societal assemblages and purchasing handicrafts ( Observatorio Turistico de la Comunitat Valenciana, 2009 ) . The two groups of tourers chosen for the research are the two ages that are non included in the current British tourer profile. The cognition of which image those two marks have about Benidorm would be really utile for selling and finish direction intents. British tourers under 25 old ages old profile is characterised by immature people that come to Spain with their households twelvemonth after twelvemonth for the summer vacations or with friends ; and whose chief activities are traveling to the beach during the twenty-four hours and after that basking the beach dark life. British tourers over 65 semens to Spain all twelvemonth unit of ammunition with a greater inflow in the months of May and October. Their chief activities are traveling to the beach, walking and dining out. They have high buying power ( Generalitat Valenciana- Conselleria de Turisme, 2008 ) .
Image has a great consequence on consumer behavior and for this ground finish sellers need to be able to cognize and pull off the image of tourer finishs. Planing development, positioning and publicity determinations depend mostly on the image of the topographic point. Even more of import in a finish image research is to accomplish the existent image of the studied country by utilizing the proper research workers and methodological analysiss because incorrect consequences can do spend touristry resources in incorrect intents ( Tasci et al. , 2007 ) . Over the old ages holding a strong favorable finish image is going more of import owing to the progressively complex and competitory planetary market place generated by a larger assortment of finishs and tourers with more leisure clip, higher degrees of disposable income and better transit webs ( Echtner and Ritchie, 1991 ) .
Echtner and Ritchie ( 1991 ) wrote about the significance and the measuring of finish image. They analysed all the work made before by different writers, summarised it and pointed out the strengths and lacks of the methods that, from their point of position, could be improved. For Echtner and Ritchie the first thing that should be improved was the definition of finish image, the starting point for every research about this topic. Until the minute, the bulk of the writers merely take into history the properties ( cognitive constituents ) of the finish image. In this manner, the multidimensionality of the construct was non captured. They proposed three constituents for survey, the opposite parts of continuums: attribute-holistic, functional-psychological and common-unique.
The definitions of finish image and finish image formation on which is based a research of this nature are indispensable and should be clear due to the fact that different definitions take into history different factors and can alter the analysis and its consequences. On the one manus, to make this research Echtner and Ritchie ( 1993 ) definition could be chosen because it is sing one of the most complete. This essay started with the finish image definition that those writers proposed. The three constituents continuums which combination generates the different dimensions of finish image are: ( 1 ) attribute/holistic continuum that means that finish image consist of perceptual experiences of single properties every bit good as mental images ; ( 2 ) functional/ psychological continuum that shows that the constituents of finish image can be straight discernible or mensurable ( functional ) or less touchable and more hard to detect and step ( psychological ) ; and ( 3 ) common/unique continuum that demonstrates that finish image can run from those perceptual experiences based on common features to those based on alone characteristics. Figure 1.1 illustrates the combination for these three continuums.
On the other manus, Baloglu and McCleary ( 1999 ) definition about finish image formation procedure could be chosen. They explained that this formation is influenced by two forces: stimulation and personal factors. The first 1s are those that root from the external stimulation and physical objects every bit good as old experience ; and the 2nd 1s are the features, both societal and psychological, of the percipient. An overall image of a topographic point is formed as a consequence of both perceptual/cognitive and affectional ratings of that topographic point ( Baloglu, and McCleary, 1999 ) . Figure 2.1 clarifies this procedure. Furthermore, Reinolds ( 1965 in Goverts et al. , 2007, p. 16 ) defines the image formation procedure as ‘the development of a mental concept based upon a few feelings chosen from a inundation of information. In the instance of finish image, this “ inundation of information ” has many beginnings including publicity ( advertisement and booklets ) , the sentiments of others ( family/friends, travel agents ) , media coverage ( newspapers, magazines, telecasting intelligence coverage and docudramas ) and popular civilization ( gesture images, literature ) ‘ .
Figure 1.1. : The constituents of finish image.
Beginning: Echtner and Ritchie, 1993.
Figure 2.1. : A General Framework of Destination Image Formation.
Beginning: Baloglu, and McCleary, 1999.
Once the constructs on which the research is traveling to be based are to the full defined, the conceptualization of the methods can get down. In order to analyze the finish image of a batch of different topographic points, rather a batch of different methods have been used. Most of the writers ( e.g. Baloglu & A ; Brinberg, 1997 ; Gartner, 1989 ; Goodrich, 1977 ; Haahti and Yavas, 1983 ) have used structured methods ( quantitative ) based on graduated table formats that measure the functional and psychological properties of the image by questionnaires. The different types of graduated tables are: semantic derived function graduated tables, Likert-typed graduated tables and in writing placement graduated tables. Another quantitative method is grid-type questionnaires ( Driscoll et al. , 1994 ) . The advantages of this sort of methods are: that the consequences provided are valid for statistical analysis ; and that the responses are focused on the information that the research required. The chief disadvantages are that structured analysis are merely able to mensurate properties so a complete analysis of the image can non be achieve ( Echtner and Ritchie, 1993 ) ; and that sometimes interviewed people are forced to react to characteristics that do non needfully consist the image they have of the finish ( Tapachai & A ; Waryszak, 2000 ) .
Merely a few writers ( e.g. Dann, 1996 ; Embacher & A ; Buttle, 1989 ; Reilly, 1990 ; Walmsley & A ; Jenkins, 1993 ) used unstructured methods ( qualitative ) as open-ended questionnaires, in-depth interviews, focal point groups or the triadic method. These methods examine the complex construction of image that refers to the holistic side and the alone facets. The odds of this sort of methods are that a measuring of non merely properties can be made ( Echtner and Ritchie, 1993 ) ; a free description of the finish can be explain by the respondent ; and besides, new characteristics that were non taken into history can be discovered through the replies of the respondents. The drawbacks are: the extremely variable degree of item depending on the verbal and composing accomplishments of the persons used in the survey, the high cost in money and in clip ; limited possibilities for statistical analysis ; and that they are capable to more interpretational prejudice ( Di Marino, 2008 ) .
The better manner to capture a finish image is a combination of both structured and unstructured methodological analysiss. Some writers ( e.g. Choi et Al, 1999 ; Court and Lupton, 1997 ; MacKay and Fesenmaier, 1997 ; Milman and Pizam, 1995 ) used this combination. The chief advantage is that all the constituents of a finish image can be analysed and the chief disadvantage is the cost both in clip and money. When uniting two different methods it is necessary to clear up some facets of the survey: the first 1 is the precedence of the two methods, the 2nd 1 is the sequencing and the 3rd one is to stipulate the phase or phases in the research procedure where assorted methodological analysis is included ( Bryman, 2006 ) .
With the conceptual model to the full defined and holding studied the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques, the design of the method can get down. The theoretical account that would be used for this research is a combination of quantitative and qualitative attacks in order to capture the existent image, with all the dimensions ( attribute-holistic, functional-psychological and common-unique ) and besides because one attack can ease the development of the other attack every bit good as explain the consequences achieved ( Greene et al. , 1989 ) . With the combination of both methodological analysiss the quality, truth, cogency and dependability of the consequences addition ( Babbie, 2004 ) . Furthermore, in order to mensurate the influence that the old cognition of the Benidorm has, a longitudinal survey would be carried out. Longitudinal surveies sample different groups of people at different times. These surveies are really common for sentiment polls ( Research Method Tutorial Page, 2009 ) . This survey would be transporting out twice, a first questionnaire before the travel and a 2nd one after the trip. In this manner, the procedure of formation ( in people that have non old cognition of the country ) and alterations in the image ( after sing the country ) could be analysed. It has been mentioned before that sing the tourer finish have influences in the image that tourers have about it and this research would demo if these influences are good or bad.
In relation with the three facets that are necessary to look into, : the first 1 was the precedence of the two methods, and in this research the quantitative research would gestate as a precedence and the informations gathered with it would be complemented by qualitative informations that will clear up, explicate and corroborate the consequences of the first portion ; the 2nd 1 was the sequencing and here the quantitative portion would be foremost and the qualitative second ; and eventually, the 3rd one is to stipulate the phase or phases in the research procedure where assorted methodological analysis is included and in this research at that place would non be any phase where both methods would be assorted ( Bryman, 2006 ) .
The first portion ( quantitative ) would be a questionnaire with a 7-points Likert graduated table divided in 5 different subdivisions: ( 1 ) socio-demographic features, in order to place and choose the interviewed that are the most appropriate for this survey ; ( 2 ) controllable properties ( finish merchandise, monetary value, topographic point and publicity ) ; ( 3 ) unmanageable properties ( personal features ) ( Sirgy and Su, 2000 ) ; ( 4 ) environmental properties ( landscapes, historical attractive forces, substructure, adjustment and installations ) ; and ( 5 ) service properties ( Job Trust, preparation and enlisting, 2007 ) . With this questionnaire, the image ‘s cognitive portion ( functional and psychological properties ) would be analysed. For the first portion, socio-demographic features, direct inquiries about age and nationality would be made in order to choose the respondents. For the remainder of the quantitative questionnaire a 7-points Likert graduated table would be built and it will travel from 1 ( really satisfied ) to the opposite extreme 7 ( really dissatisfied ) . The 2nd phase would be the qualitative portion, a questionnaire with open-ended inquiries able to mensurate the holistic ( both functional and psychological ) side of finish image and place the common traits and the alone characteristics. This research would develop a deeper elucidation of the quantitative results by an inductive analysis and a subjective content ‘s reading and besides would ease the decisions ‘ happening procedure ( San Martin and Rodriguez Del Bosque, 2008 ) . There would be 3 blocks of inquiries: ( 1 ) General feelings about Benidorm ; ( 2 ) outlooks ; and ( 3 ) unique characteristics perceived.
As a longitudinal survey, the informations should be gathered in two times. With this intent, the same study will be used before and after the trip. The questionnaire should be the same in order to mensurate the alterations produced, however there would be one difference. In the study after the trip there would be a 4th block of inquiries in the qualitative portion, direct inquiries about the alterations that they think the trip have caused in the image that they used to hold approximately Benidorm. This questionnaire should hold the graduated table necessary to garner the indispensable information piece should non be excessively long. If it is really long could be perceived as boring and therefore the respondents would non make full it.
As it has been reference before, the mark tourers of the study would be British tourers from 18 to 25 old ages old and British tourers older than 65 old ages. The questionnaires would be personally administered to each tourer. With the intent of interview the same tourers before and after the trip, the first study would be in the airdrome, before the trip and together with the questionnaire the interviewer would inquire the respondents to supply contact inside informations in order to be sent the 2nd questionnaire after the trip. The ground to take this assortment of interview is because of the British tourers ‘ features: the 90.8 % of the sum of the trips were organised independently, without mediators and without the traditional bundles. The chief ways of adjustments were non hotels ( 72.55 % in 2008 of others sorts of adjustments like bivouacing or flats ) and the chief information channels are household and friends ( 48 % ) ; and the cyberspace ( 40 % ) . These are the grounds that explain why it is non utile to utilize the common channels to make interviews, channels like hotels, touroperators, tourer offices or travel bureaus ( Observatorio Turistico de la Comunitat Valenciana, 2009 ) .
When analyzing the information gathered, the first portion of the study ( quantitative portion ) would be analysed with SPSS package. This package helps with the informations analysis by exemplifying trusty decisions about the information. The information is cleaned, transformed, and evaluated utilizing statistical, mathematical, and other algorithmic techniques. These techniques prepare the information for categorization, cleavage, regulation initiation, sequence and association sensing, pattern acknowledgment, text excavation, prediction, anomaly designation, profiling, leaning marking and advanced visual image ( SPSS Inc. An IBM Company, 2009 ) . The 2nd portion of the study ( qualitative portion ) needs a more interpretive analysis. Based on the consequences obtained from the first portion of the questionnaire, this information would be analysed. As Silverman ( 2000 ) explained a ‘realist ‘ attack to interview informations analysis should be achieved. The truth of the readings resulted from the qualitative analysis should be step with inter-coder understanding and computer-assisted qualitative informations plans in order to guarantee that the readings fit with some external world. Among all the CAQDAS ( Computer-assisted analysis of qualitative informations ) , the computer-assited plan that would be used to look into the readings of the qualitative information is ATLAS.ti, a plan that has been used for more than 20 old ages with this intent. With the betterments in engineering and package, nowadays ATLAS.ti is able to assist with the analysis of text, artworks, sound, picture and all the informations that can non be meaningfully analysed by formal and statistical attacks ( Atlas.ti, 2009 ) .
The consequences of this study would demo the image that British tourers under 25 old ages old have of Benidorm as tourer finish every bit good as the image British tourers over 65 old ages old have. These consequences are expected to hold some differences due to the different features of the two groups. British tourers are the chief tourer of Benidorm and for this ground it is so of import the cognition of their penchants and the existent feelings that they have about the metropolis. The information gathered with this research would supply this information and in this manner it would assist Benidorm ‘s finish image directors. They can better the image that British tourers in general have about this metropolis and pull the two sections on which the analysis is performed by demoing a more suited image of the metropolis for those two mark markets. Furthermore, the inquiries proposed at the really get downing would be answered besides with the consequences. It could be find out what the tourers think about the tourer theoretical account of Benidorm, the influence that the media have on their Benidorm image and if the trip and direct cognition of the metropolis have change the image that they antecedently have.
This paper should reason with a sum-up of the strengths and failings of the method used. On the one manus, the advantages of this method are: ( 1 ) the possibility of step all the dimensions of Benidorm ‘s finish image ; ( 2 ) the chance of analyse how can sing a finish changes the finish image that a tourer has and ( 3 ) the accomplishment and the comparing of the features of two really different marks by the same method. On the other manus, the drawbacks are: ( 1 ) the trouble of have longitudinal consequences due to the fact that most of the interviewed would make full in the first questionnaire but likely they would non make the same with the 2nd one ; ( 2 ) the interviews would be done at the airdrome because of the trouble of making them in other minutes of the trip due to the British tourers ‘ features. Making interviews at the airdrome has the disadvantage of the small clip that tourers have to believe and finish the questionnaire ; ( 3 ) variable degree of item in the qualitative portion depending on the verbal and composing accomplishment of the tourers and ( 4 ) the qualitative portion is besides capable to more interpretational prejudice. In order to accomplish a longitudinal analysis despite of the first disadvantage mentioned ( the possibility of a low response rate for the 2nd questionnaire ) , the two-base hit of the necessary questionnaires would be made in the first phase ( before the trip ) . In this manner, there are more options that the sum necessary of tourer complete the full study and therefore the failing can be overcome.
From an academic point of position, the theoretical footing ( on which subsequent analysis is based on ) attempted to specify the constructs of finish image, and finish creative activity procedure. As Tasci et Al. ( 2007 ) province a systematised construction has non been achieved in either gestating or in the methodological analysis about the survey of finish image. For this ground it is excessively of import to hold chiseled theoretical footing in order to cognize what the research is about. With this intent a description of some of the attacks traditionally used has been done before choose the one consider more appropriate for the analysis of Benidorm image. From a practical point of position, and because a common method of measuring has non been achieved ( as it has been mentioned ) , along these lines it has been seeking to explicate one possible method chosen after weighing the advantages and disadvantages of the most normally used methods. The odds and disabilities of the method proposed have been besides described. With the consequences finish image selling directors could seek to better the existent selling programs and get down new publicities adapted to the new marks and their features.