Technical Writing Essay

Compare the undermentioned two sentences that provide instructions to a set of employees ( this Example is given in [ Roy 2000 ] ) : 1. It is of considerable importance to guarantee that under no fortunes should anyone neglect to deactivate the overhead luminescent map at its local activation point on their going to their topographic point of abode. most notably instantly predating the two twenty-four hours period at the expiration of the criterion working hebdomad. 2. Always turn the visible radiations out when you go home. particularly on a Friday. The significance of both sentences is. of class. equivalent. Which one was easier to read and understand? The aim of this papers is to demo people how to compose as in the 2nd sentence instead than the first. If you really prefer the first. so there is small point in you reading the remainder of this papers. But delight do non anticipate to win excessively many friends ( or Markss ) from any composing that you produce. Unfortunately. the great shame for anybody holding to read tonss of studies in their mundane life is that the schools’ system continues to bring forth pupils who feel they ought to compose more like in the first sentence than the 2nd. Hence. the unnecessarily composite and formal manner is still common. This papers shows you that there is a better manner to compose. utilizing simple. apparent English. One of the good things about proficient authorship is that you truly can larn to better. You should non believe people who say that being a good author is a natural ability that you either have or do non hold. We are speaking here about showing proficient or concern studies and non about composing novels. I speak from some experience in this regard. because in the last 10 old ages I have learned these thoughts and applied them to go a better author. When I was composing my first book in 1989 an outstanding proficient editor highlighted the many jobs with my authorship. I was guilty of many of the illustrations of bad pattern that I will foreground throughout this papers. You excessively can better your composing significantly if you are cognizant of what these bad patterns are and how to avoid them. The papers contains the following chief subdivisions: • • • • • Before you start composing ( Section 2 ) : This is a simple checklist that stresses the importance of cognizing your nonsubjective and audience. Using apparent English: manner ( Section 3 ) . This is the bosom of the papers because it explains how to compose in the simplest and most effectual manner. Using apparent English: the mechanics ( Section 4 ) . This covers vocabulary. spelling. and punctuation. Basic construction for studies ( Section 5 ) . This subdivision explains how to organize your study into subdivisions and how to put it out. Abstractions and executive sum-ups ( Section 6 ) . This explains the difference between enlightening and descriptive abstracts. It tells you why you should ever utilize enlightening abstracts and how to compose them. Writing that includes mathematics ( Section 7 ) . This contains some simple regulations you should follow if your composing includes mathematical symbols or expressions.

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2. Before you start composing
Before you start bring forthing your word-processed study you must do certain you do the followers: • Decide what the aim of the study is. This is critical. If you fail to make this you will about surely produce something that is unsatisfactory. Every study should hold a individual clear aim. Make the aim every bit specific as possible. Write down the aim. Ideally. this should be in one sentence. For illustration. the aim of this papers is “to aid pupils write good structured. easy-to-understand proficient reports” . The aim should so be stated at the beginning of the study. If you can non compose down the aim in one sentence. so you are non yet ready to get down any authorship. Always have in head a specific reader. You should presume that the reader is intelligent but uninformed. It may be utile to province up forepart what the reader profile is. For illustration. the mark readers for this papers are chiefly pupils and research workers with a good working cognition of English. The papers is non suited for kids under 13. or people who have yet to compose paperss in English. It is ideal for people who have written proficient or concern paperss and wish to better their authorship accomplishments. Decide what information you need to include. You should utilize the aim as your mention and list the countries you need to cover. Once you have collected the information make a note of each chief point and so screen them into logical groups. Ultimately you have to do certain that every sentence makes a part to the aim. If stuff you write does non do a part to the nonsubjective remove it – if it is good you may even be able to recycle it in a different study with a different aim. Have entree to a good lexicon. Before utilizing a word
that ‘sounds good’ . but whose significance you are non certain of. look into it in the lexicon. Do the same for any word you are non certain how to spell. Identify person who can supply feedback. Make certain you identify a friend. comparative or co-worker who can read at least one bill of exchange of your study before you submit it officially. Make non worry if the individual does non understand the proficient country – they can at least look into the construction and manner and it may even coerce you to compose in the field English manner advocated here.

The undermentioned checklist should be applied before you give even an early bill of exchange of your papers out for reappraisal: • • • Check that the construction conforms to all the regulations described in this papers. Run the papers through a spelling checker. Read it through carefully. seeking to set yourself in the places of your possible readers.

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3. Using apparent English: manner
When you are bring forthing a proficient or concern study you want it to ‘get results’ . If you are a pupil this can intend literally acquiring a good class.
More by and large we mean that you want to convert the reader that what you have to state is reasonable so that they act consequently. If the study is a proposal so you want the reader to accept your recommendations. If the study describes a piece of research so you want the reader to understand what you did and why it was of import and valid. Trying to be ‘clever’ and ‘cryptic’ in the manner you write will confound and rag your readers and have the opposite consequence to what you wanted. In all instances you are more likely to acquire consequences if you present your thoughts and information in the simplest possible manner. This subdivision describes how to make this. The subdivision is structured as follows: • Sections 3. 1 and 3. 2 describe structural techniques for doing your composing easier to understand. Specifically: O o • o o • Sentence and paragraph length: maintaining them short is the simplest first measure to improved authorship. Bullet points and lists: utilizing these makes things clearer and less littered. Using the simplest words and looks available: this subdivision besides describes words and looks to avoid. Avoiding unneeded words: this is about taking redundancy.

Sections 3. 3 and 3. 4 describe techniques for utilizing fewer words. Specifically:

Sections 3. 5 to 3. 7 describe techniques for avoiding common causes of ill structured sentences. Specifically: O O o Using verbs alternatively of nouns Using active instead than inactive manner Using personal instead than impersonal manner

• • •

Section 3. 8 describes how to explicate new thoughts clearly. Section 3. 9 explains the importance of calling things systematically. Section 3. 10 gives some regulations on how to accomplish political rightness in your authorship without adding complexness.

3. 1 Sentence and paragraph length
Contrary to what you may hold learnt in school. there is nil clever about composing long. complex sentences. For proficient composing it is merely incorrect. You must acquire used to the thought of composing sentences that are moderately short and simple. In many instances shorter sentences can be achieved by lodging to
the undermentioned rules: 1. A sentence should incorporate a individual unit of information. Therefore. avoid compound sentences wherever possible. In peculiar. be on the sentinel for words like and. or and while which are frequently used unnecessarily to construct a compound sentence.

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2. Check your sentences for defective building. Incorrect usage of commas ( see Section 4. 3 for how to utilize commas right ) is a common cause of ill constructed and overly long sentences. Example ( this illustration fixes some other jobs besides that are dealt with below ) Bad: “Time division multiplexed systems are fundamentally much simpler. the combination and separation of channels being affected by clocking circuits instead than by filters and inter-channel intervention is less dependent on system non-linearities. due to the fact that merely one channel is utilizing the common communicating medium at any instant. ” Good: “Systems multiplexed by clip division are fundamentally much simpler. The channels are combined and separated by clocking circuits. non by filters. Intervention between channels depends less on non-linear characteristics of the system. because merely one channel is utilizing the common communicating medium at any clip. ” 3. Use parentheses meagerly. Most utilizations are due to laziness and can be avoided by interrupting up the sentence. Never usage nested parentheses if you want to retain your reader. Learning about some of the rules described below. particularly utilizing active instead than inactive concepts. will travel a long manner toward assisting you shorten your sentences. Merely as it is bad to compose long sentences it is besides bad to compose long paragraphs. A paragraph should incorporate a individual coherent thought. You should ever maintain paragraphs to less than half a page. On the other manus. consecutive paragraphs that are really short may besides be hard to read. Such an attack is frequently the consequence of ill structured thought.
If you need to compose a sequence of sentences that each express a different thought so it is normally best to utilize slug points or enumerated lists to make so. We consider these following.

3. 2 Bullet points and enumerated lists
If the sentences in a paragraph demand to be written in sequence so this suggests that there is something that relates them and that they form some sort of a list. The thought that relates them should be used to present the list. For illustration. the undermentioned paragraph is a muss because the author is seeking to do what is clearly a list into one paragraph: Geting to university on clip for a 9. 00am lecture involves following a figure of stairss. First of wholly you have to put your dismay – you will necessitate to make this before you go to bed the old dark. When the dismay goes off you will necessitate to acquire out of bed. You should next take a shower and so acquire yourself dressed. After acquiring dressed you should hold some breakfast. After breakfast you have to walk to the tubing station. and so purchase a ticket when you get at that place. Once you have your ticket you can catch the following train to Stepney Green. When the train arrives at Stepney Green you should acquire off and so eventually walk to the University. The followers is much simpler and clearer: To acquire to university on clip for a 9. 00am talk: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Set dismay before traveling to bed the old dark Get out of bed when the dismay goes away Take a shower Get dressed Have some breakfast

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6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Walk to the tubing station Buy ticket Catch next train to Stepney Green Get out at Stepney Green Walk to the University

The simple regulation of pollex is: if what you are depicting is a list so you should ever expose it as a list. The above is an illustration of an enumerated list. The points need to be shown in numbered order. If there is no specific ordination of the points in the list so you should utilize slug points alternatively. For illustration consider the undermentioned paragraph: Good package technology is based on a figure of cardinal rules. One such rule is acquiring a good apprehension of the client demands ( perchance by prototyping ) . It is besides of import to present in regular increases. affecting the customer/user every bit much as possible. Another rule it that it is necessary to make proving throughout. with unit proving being particularly important. In add-on to the old rules. you need to be able to keep good communicating within the undertaking squad ( and besides with the client ) . The paragraph is much better when rewritten utilizing slug points: Good package technology is based on the undermentioned cardinal rules: • • • • Get a good apprehension of the client demands ( perchance by prototyping ) . Deliver in regular increases ( affect the customer/user every bit much as possible ) . Do proving throughout. ( unit testing is particularly important ) . Maintain good communicating within the undertaking squad ( and besides with the client ) .

There are legion illustrations throughout this study of slug points and enumerated lists. You should ne’er be saving in your usage of such lists. Besides. observe the undermentioned regulation for punctuation in lists: If all the list points are really short. by which we usually mean less than one line long. so there is no demand for any punctuation. Otherwise usage a full halt at the terminal of each list point.

3. 3 Using the simplest words and looks possible
On a recent trip to Brussels by Eurostar the train director made the undermentioned proclamation: “Do non waver to reach us in the event that you are in demand if aid at this time” . What she meant was: “Please reach us if you need assist now” . but she clearly did non utilize the simplest words and looks possible. While this may be acceptable verbally. it is non acceptable in composing. The aureate regulations on words and looks to avoid are: • • • • Replace hard words and phrases with simpler options ;
Avoid stock phrases ; Avoid legal words and ostentation ; Avoid slang.

We will cover with each of these in bend.

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3. 3. 1 Replace hard words and phrases with simpler options Table 1 lists a figure of words and looks that should by and large be avoided in favor of the simple alternate. Table 1 Wordss and looks to avoid

Word/expression to avoid utilise facilitate at this clip in regard of commence terminate ascertain in the event of in effect enquire

Simple alternate usage aid now about start terminal. halt discovery out if so inquire

Word/expression to avoid endeavour terminate transmit demonstrate initiate aid. aid necessitate in surplus of brooding

Simple alternate try terminal. halt send show get down help necessitate more than house

Besides. unless you are speaking about edifice care or computing machine artworks. ne’er use the verb ‘render’ as in: The proving scheme rendered it impossible to happen all the mistakes. The ‘correct’ version of the above sentence is: The proving scheme made it impossible to happen all the mistakes. In other words. if you mean ‘make’ so merely compose ‘make’ non ‘render’ .

3. 3. 2 Avoid stock phrases
Stock phrase like those shown in Table 2 should be avoided in favor of the simpler option. Such phrases are cumbrous and grandiloquent. Table 2 Stock
phrases to avoid

BAD There is a sensible outlook that … Owing to the state of affairs that … Should a state of affairs arise where … Taking into consideration such factors as … Prior to the juncture when … At this precise minute in clip … Do non waver to … I am in reception of …

Good Probably … Because. since … If … Considering … Before … Now … Please … I have …

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3. 3. 3 Avoid legal words and ostentation
Lawyers seem to hold a linguistic communication of their ain. This is chiefly to guarantee that their paperss are so hard to understand that merely other attorneies can read them. This ensures more work and money for attorneies because it forces ordinary people to pay attorneies for work they could make themselves. For some unusual ground ordinary people frequently think they are being really clever by utilizing legal words and looks in their ain authorship. Make non fall into this trap. Avoid legal words like the followers: forthwith henceforth hereat hereof hereto herewith Of the ( 4th ) inst. thereat therein thereof whereat whereon

Besides avoid absurd legal mentions like the followers: “The said package compiler…” which should be changed to “The package compiler…” and: “The aforesaid people have agreed …” which should be changed to “A and B have agreed…”

3. 3. 4 Avoid slang
Expressions like MS/DOS. Poisson distribution. and distributor cap are illustrations of slang. In general. slang refers to descriptions of specific things within a specialized field. The descriptions are frequently shorthand or abbreviations. If you are certain that every reader of your study understands the specializer field so it can be acceptable to utilize slang. For illustration. if your lone possible readers are computing machine specializers so it is likely All right to mention to MS/DOS without the demand to explicate what MS/DOS is or stands for. The same applies to Poisson distribution if your readers are all statisticians or distributer cap if your readers are auto mechanics. In all other instances ( which is about ever ) slang should be avoided. If you can non avoid it by utilizing alternate looks so you should specify the term the first clip you use it and/or supply a glossary where it is defined.

3. 4 Avoiding unneeded words and repeat
Many sentences contain unneeded words that repeat an thought already expressed in another word. This wastes infinite and blunts the message. In many instances unneeded words are caused by ‘abstract’ words like nature. place. character. status and state of affairs as the undermentioned illustrations show:

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BAD The merchandise is non of a satisfactory nature The merchandise is non of a satisfactory character After specification we are in a place to get down elaborate design We are now in the state of affairs of being able to get down elaborate design

Good The merchandise is unsatisfactory The merchandise is unsatisfactory After specification we can get down elaborate design We can now get down elaborate design

In general. you should therefore usage such abstract words meagerly. if at all. Often writers use several words for thoughts that can be expressed in one. This leads to unnecessarily complex sentences and echt redundancy as the undermentioned illustrations show: WITH REDUNDANCY The pressman is located next to the computing machine The pressman is located in the immediate locality of the computing machine The user can visibly see the image traveling He wore a shirt that was blue in coloring material The input is appropriately processed This is done by agencies of infixing an unreal mistake The ground for the addition in figure of mistakes found was due to an addition in proving It is likely that jobs will originate with respects to the completion of the specification stage Within a relatively short period we will be able to complete the design WITHOUT REDUNDANCY The pressman is next to the computing machine The pressman is near the computing machine The user can see the image traveling He wore a bluish shirt The input is processed This is done by infixing an unreal mistake The addition in figure of mistakes found was due to an addition in proving You will likely hold jobs finishing the specification stage Soon we will be able to complete the design

Another common cause of excess words is when people use alleged modifying words. For illustration. the word suitable in the sentence “John left the edifice in suited haste” is a modifying word. It is excess because the sentence “John left the edifice in haste” has precisely the same significance. Similarly. the other signifier of a modifying word – the one stoping in ‘y’ as in suitably – is besides normally excess. For illustration. “John was appropriately impressed” says nil more than “John was impressed” . Other illustrations are: BAD absolute bunk perfectly critical considerable trouble well hard GOOD bunk critical trouble hard

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Modifying words can be all right when used with a concrete mention. as in the illustration “Jane set John a suited task” but in many instances they are non and so are best avoided: Here are the most common modifying words to avoid: appreciable approximative comparative definite apparent inordinate just negligible sensible comparative sufficient suited undue utter

Finally. one of the simplest ways to shorten and simplify your studies is to take repeat. Ill structured studies are frequently characterised by the same thought being described in different topographic points. The lone ‘allowable’ repeat is in debuts and sum-ups. as we shall see in Section 5. 4. You can avoid repeat by look intoing through your study and jotting down a list of the cardinal thoughts as they appear. Where the same thought appears more than one time. you have to make up one’s mind one time and for all the topographic point where it should outdo spell and so cancel and/or unify the text consequently.

3. 5 Using verbs alternatively of nouns
Expression at the undermentioned sentence: “Half the squad were involved in the development of system Y” . This sentence contains a authoritative illustration of a common cause of hapless composing manner. The sentence is utilizing an abstract noun ‘development’ alternatively of the verb ‘develop’ from which it is derived. The simpler and more natural version of the sentence is: “Half the squad were involved in developing system Y” . Turning verbs into abstract nouns ever consequences in longer sentences than necessary. so you should avoid making it. The undermentioned illustrations show the betterments you can accomplish by acquiring rid of nouns in favor of verbs: Bad He used to assist in the specification of new package Acid rain histories for the devastation of ancient stone-work When you take into consideration … Snaping the icon causes the executing of the plan Measurement of inactive package belongingss was performed by the tool The analysis of the package was performed by Fred The testing of the package was carried out by Jane It was reported by Jones that method x facilitated the use of review techniques by the testing squad GOOD He used to assist stipulate new package Acid rain destroys ancient stone-work When you consider … The plan executes when the icon is clicked The tool measured inactive package belongingss Fred analysed the package Jane
tested the package Jones reported that method x helped the proving squad usage review techniques

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The last illustration is a peculiar front-runner of mine ( the bad version appeared in a published paper ) since it manages to transgress merely about every rule of good authorship manner. It uses a noun concept alternatively of a verb and it includes two of the out words ( facilitated. use ) . However. one of the worst characteristics of this sentence is that it says “It was reported by Jones” alternatively of merely “Jones reported” . This is a authoritative illustration of usage of inactive instead active concepts. We deal with this in the following subdivision.

3. 6 Using active instead than inactive manner
See the following two sentences: 1. Joe tested the package 2. The package was tested by Joe Both sentences provide indistinguishable information. The first is said to be in the active manner and the 2nd is said to be inactive manner. In certain state of affairss it can do sense to utilize the less natural inactive manner. For illustration. if you truly want to emphasize that a thing was acted on. so it is sensible to utilize the inactive manner as in “the metropolis was destroyed by changeless bombing” . However. many authors routinely use the inactive manner merely because they believe it is more ‘formal’ and ‘acceptable’ . It is non. Using the inactive manner is the most common ground for ill structured sentences and it ever leads to longer sentences than are necessary. Unless you have a really good ground for the alteration in accent. you should ever compose in the active manner. The undermentioned illustrations show the betterments of exchanging from inactive to active: BAD The study was written by Bloggs. and was found to be first-class The values were measured automatically by the control system It was reported by the director
that the undertaking was in problem The precise mechanism responsible for this hostility can non be elucidated The stableness of the procedure is enhanced by co-operation GOOD Bloggs wrote the study. and it was first-class The control system measured the values automatically The director reported that the undertaking was in problem We do non cognize what causes this hostility Co-operation improves the stableness of the procedure

3. 7 Using personal instead than impersonal manner
Stating “My consequences have shown…” is an illustration of a sentence utilizing the personal ( besides called foremost individual ) manner. This contrasts with: “The author’s consequences have shown…” which is an illustration of the impersonal ( besides called 3rd individual ) manner.

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Whether to utilize personal or impersonal manner is a topic that still causes ferocious argument. Some authors feel that a study is non genuinely scientific if it is written in the personal manner. and they back up this claim by indicating to esteemed scientific diaries that insist on 3rd individual composing. In fact. it is difficult to happen any reputable diary that continues with such a policy. The most of import justification for utilizing first individual manner is that it is more natural and consequences in simpler sentences. Many illustrations of the sort of hapless sentence construction that we have seen in the old two subdivisions ( utilizing passive instead than active manner and utilizing nouns instead than verbs ) are caused when writers are forced to compose in the 3rd individual. See the undermentioned illustrations: BAD GOOD

The current research work of the writer of I besides describe my current research work this study is besides described In the old study of the
writers the In our old study we discussed in principle for the proposed method was detail the principle for the proposed discussed in item method However. it is the writer’s belief that this However. I believe this state of affairs should state of affairs should non hold occurred non hold occurred Examination and treatment of the consequences We must analyze and discourse the consequences obtained. are necessary before a determination can before we decide be taken In many instances you have to include tormenting recreations to do what you are seeking to state unambiguous if you insist on the impersonal manner. For illustration: “The author’s consequences have shown …” may really be equivocal because it is no longer clear which writer you are truly mentioning to. This leads to the writhed polish: “The consequences by the writer of this study show …” which sounds grandiloquent and unnatural. It surely compares ill with “My consequences have shown…” In the undermentioned illustration: “Recent experiments affecting formal reviews have resulted in …” it is non clear whether the author is mentioning to their ain experiments. other researchers’ experiments. or a combination of the two. Even worse than ambiguity is where usage of impersonal instead than personal manner introduces echt uncertainness. For illustration. see the followers: “It is non possible to province the exact manner of operation of the drug” . This leaves serious uncertainties in readers’ heads. It might intend that the writers do non cognize how the drug works. but it might besides intend that the operation of the drug is impossible. Finally. many writers who are loath to utilize the personal manner. but realise that they can non compose a sentence of course without it. choose to utilize the look ‘one’ as in “One can reason from the experiment …” . You should avoid this. as it sounds grandiloquent. If you feel uneasy about stating “I” so say “we” . In other words the ‘royal’ we is better than the royal ‘one’ .

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3. 8 Explain new thoughts clearly
If you are seeking to present or explicate a new thought or abstract construct so there are three techniques you can utilize to assist your readers and better your message: • Use examples: In Section 3. 6 I described the constructs of active and inactive concepts. Before trying a formal definition I provided some illustrations. Take a expression back at how I did this and use the same attack in your ain studies. The general regulation is to seek to supply an illustration before supplying an abstract definition or generalization. Use analogies: Suppose you wanted to explicate what electronic mail was to person who had merely woken from a 20-year coma. You could seek stating them that electronic mail was much like directing a missive. but without holding to physically utilize a cast and happen a letterbox. This is an illustration of an analogy. Use a diagram: If you can supply a simple diagram that captures an abstract construct so you are efficaciously supplying a pictural analogy. This can be really effectual if done good.

3. 9 Use consistent naming of the same ‘things’
Many coevalss of schoolchildren have been indoctrinated with the regulation: “Never use the same word twice” . So. we get authors who feel that they must ever utilize a different word to depict the same thing. In proficient and concern composing precisely the opposite regulation applies: You should ever utilize the same word to mention to the same thing. Anything else causes confusion and irritation to readers. Consider. for illustration. the undermentioned paragraph that was written in a group undertaking concluding study: In the first three hebdomads of the undertaking we wrote a undertaking program for the system. We were ambitious in our demands because we wanted the group undertaking to be a success and we wanted the package to be of high quality. In fact we were determined that our package would win the award. By the terminal of term we realised there were major jobs with the undertaking. The first increase of the undertaking we delivered was inconsistent with the demands specification and it was
clear the concluding codification would non be the best system as there were clearly better groups than ours. The job with this paragraph is that there are three cardinal ‘things’ that are referred to in different and inconsistent ways. The ‘things’ are: • • • The undertaking: This refers to the entireness of the group experience. The program: This refers to a papers depicting the demands and agenda for implementing them. The system: This refers to the package system that the group undertaking is supposed to present. The undertaking: undertaking ; group undertaking ; group. The program: undertaking program ; demands ; demands specification. The system: system ; package ; undertaking ; codification ; concluding codification.

Unfortunately. we find that these things are referred to at different parts of the paragraph as: • • •

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Not merely is at that place inconsistent naming of the same ‘things’ but we besides find echt ambiguity because the same words are used to mention to different ‘things’ . There look to be two distinguishable grounds why pupils write in this manner: 1. They have been brainwashed by the ‘never use the same word twice’ regulation at school. 2. They are truly confused in their ain heads and hence conceal their confusion by calculated ambiguity. In state of affairss such as this it is of import to place each different ‘thing’ foremost and make up one’s mind one time and for all how it should be named. Once you have made this determination be consistent and use the same name throughout when you refer to that ‘thing’ . In the above illustration this would take to the following improved text: In the first three hebdomads of the undertaking we wrote a program for the system. Our program was ambitious because we wanted the undertaking to be a success and we wanted the system to be high quality. In fact we were determined that our undertaking
would win the award. By the terminal of term we realised there were major jobs with the undertaking. The first increase of the system we delivered was inconsistent with the program and it was clear the concluding system would non be the best system as there were clearly better undertakings than ours.

3. 10 Painless political rightness
If you were composing a manual on ‘how to affect the boss’ where the manual is supposed to be relevant for any boss/employee relationship. you would likely desire to avoid the undermentioned sort of statements: If you find yourself with small to make inquire your foreman if he wants you to assist him. The usage of ‘he’ . ‘she’ . ‘him’ . ‘her’ . when mentioning to non-specific people can in fact be avoided. without holding to fall back to the atrocious ‘he/she’ . ‘him/her’ alternate. You can utilize the undermentioned methods: • Use plural pronouns alternatively of remarkable. Therefore. usage ‘they’ in topographic point of ‘he’ or ‘she’ . utilize the pronoun ‘them’ in topographic point of ‘him’ or ‘her’ . and utilize the pronoun ‘their’ in topographic point of ‘his’ and ‘her’ . So the above text could be rewritten as ‘…ask your foreman if they want you to assist them’ . And you could compose ‘the coder should prove his ain code’ as ‘the coder should prove their ain code’ . Rewrite the sentence in the plural. Therefore. alternatively of ‘England expects every adult male to make his duty’ write ‘England expects everyone to make their duty’ . Use ‘you’ or ‘your’ . Thus. alternatively of stating ‘every employee should go forth his desk tidy’ say ‘leave your desk tidy’ . Rewrite the sentence to avoid any mention to awkward pronouns. Often. such an option is simpler anyhow. For illustration. you could compose ‘If you find yourself with small to make inquire if the foreman wants some help’ .

• • •

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3. 11 Drumhead
The chief points you should hold learnt from this subdivision ( in order of importance ) are: • • • • • • • • • • Keep sentences and paragraphs short. Never use a complicated word or phrase when there is a simpler option. Remove and unneeded words and repeat. Use active instead than inactive manner. Use active verbs instead than abstract nouns. Use personal instead than impersonal manner. Explain new thoughts clearly by utilizing illustrations. analogies. and diagrams. If what you are depicting is a list so utilize an enumerated list or slug points. Avoid stock phrases. legal words and ostentation. For each abstract ‘thing’ referred to in your study. utilize a consistent name to mention to the ‘thing’ . In other words ignore the ‘rule’ that says you should ne’er utilize the same word twice. Use of ‘he’ or ‘she’ to mention to non-specific people is regarded as politically wrong and is easy to avoid. Never use the words utilise or facilitate since these are severally the most useless and grandiloquent words in the English linguistic communication.

• •

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4. Using apparent English: the mechanics
Section 3 explained the most of import rules for bettering the manner of your authorship. However. it is besides of import ( and really easier ) to better the mechanics. We have already looked at the mechanics of structuring studies in Section 2. In this subdivision we look at the mechanics of utilizing apparent English. We focus on: • • • Avoiding common vocabulary and spelling mistakes ( Section 4. 1 ) Abbreviations ( Section 4. 2 ) Punctuation ( Section 4. 3 )

4. 1 Avoiding common vocabulary and spelling mistakes
Beyond holding a good lexicon available. there is no simple guideline to follow to do certain you ever use and spell words right. However. there are a figure of illustrations of words that are often misused in topographic point of a similar sounding word with a different significance. These illustrations are given in Table 3.

Table 3: Normally confused words

affect: verb significance to act upon inauspicious: adjectival significance unfavorable rule: noun intending a criterion or regulation of behavior letter paper: noun significance composing stuffs illicit: adjectival significance illegal flaunt: verb significance to demo off allusion: noun intending a passing mention as in “were you doing an allusion to my married woman? ” complement: noun intending something that completes. or verb significance to do complete council: noun intending an assembly guarantee: verb significance to do certain mitigate: verb significance to chair pattern: noun as in “put my thoughts into practice” advice: noun significance recommendation

consequence: noun intending consequence or verb significance to convey about averse: adjectival significance opposed to or disinclined chief: adjectival or noun significance most of import stationary: adjectival significance non traveling elicit: verb significance to give rise to flout: verb significance to demo contempt semblance: noun intending a false feeling compliment: noun significance congratulations or verb significance to praise advocate: verb significance to urge or noun intending recommendation insure: verb significance to protect against hazard militate: verb significance to influence ( for or against ) practise: verb advise: verb

Similarly. Table 4 lists some of the most commonly misspelt words.

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accommodate commemorate committedness commission

embarrass gage harass milage

necessary parallel privilege questionnaire

The concluding category of vocabulary jobs you should avoid is utilizing American spelling ( unless you are subjecting your study to an American audience ) . This means in peculiar: • • Verbs should stop in ‘ise’ instead than ‘ize’ as in ‘generalise’ instead than ‘generalize’ and ‘formalise’ instead than ‘formalize’ . Wordss like ‘colour’ and ‘flavour’ should non be written as ‘color’ and ‘flavor’ .

4. 2 Abbreviations
The regulations you should follow on abbreviations are: • Always avoid abridging words out of indolence. For illustration: Never write ‘approx. ’ for ‘approximately’ ( it may be better to compose ‘about’ ) ; Never write ‘e. g. ’ for ‘for example’ . An exclusion. but misused illustration. is ‘etc. ’ . In most instance where ‘etc. ’ is used it can be avoided. For illustration. people normally use it in the undermentioned manner: “He chows tonss of fruit. such as apples. oranges. bananas. etc. ” The ‘etc. ’ here is excess because of the ‘such as’ . If you are utilizing ‘etc. ’ so the right manner to compose the above sentence would be: “He chows tonss of fruit: apples. oranges. bananas. etc. ” • A long rubric. such as Tottenham Hotspur Football Club. should non be abbreviated if it is used merely one time in a papers. However. if it is used more than one time so it can be abbreviated to its initials THFC supplying that the first clip it is used you write the full rubric with the initials in brackets. Where initials such as THFC are used as above it is utile to supply a glossary.

4. 3 Punctuation
This subdivision covers the regulations for utilizing: • • • • Capital letters Apostrophes Commas Exclamation Markss

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4. 3. 1 Capital letters
Peoples use capital letters far more often than they should. Apart from at the beginning of sentences. and proper names. the merely other times you need to utilize capitals are for: • • • • • • • Organisations and topographic points ( for illustration. the House of Commons ) ; Acts of Parliament ( for illustration. the Act of Union ) ; Label formed from a proper name ( hence Marxist. but non communist ) ; North. South. East and West when they form portion of a state name but non otherwise ( hence South Africa. but non south London ) ; Titles when used with the name but non otherwise ( hence the Duke of York. but non the duke ) ; Certain periods of history ( for illustration. the Black Death. Renaissance ) ; God.

4. 3. 2 Apostrophes
Apostrophes have two intents merely: 1. To demo that a missive has been missed out: For illustration. isn’t ( is non ) . can’t ( can non ) . it’s ( it is ) . 2. To demo ownership: For illustration. the snake’s eyes. the children’s places. If the thing making the possessing already has an s at the terminal so do non add an s. For illustration. if we are speaking about the eyes of several serpents so we write: the snakes’ eyes. The lone exclusion to this last regulation is if: • • it is a proper noun ( Mr Jones’s girl ) ; the word ends in a dual US Secret Service ( the boss’s office ) .

You ne’er use an apostrophe with a genitive pronoun like her. its. theirs. ours. If you learn these two simple regulations so you should cognize instantly that the undermentioned illustrations are incorrect ( yet they are highly common ) : • • •
• I gave the cat it’s nutrient I like tomatoe’s In the 1960’s All the department’s were represented.

In each instance the apostrophe should non be at that place. A related error. which is shocking in its stupidity yet improbably common. is: • • I should of done my prep I should’ve done my prep ( short for should hold ) . alternatively of

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4. 3. 3 Comma
If you follow the rules described in Section 3 you will happen that you need to utilize fewer commas because you are composing shorter sentences. This is a fillip. because the fewer commas you can utilize the better. Apart from the instance where a sentence would be excessively long otherwise. there are merely four grounds for utilizing a comma: 1. Where you are composing a list. For illustration: ‘I like apples. oranges. Prunus persicas and bananas. ’ However. note that in proficient studies it is normally better to utilize enumerated lists or slug points. Where the points in the list include commas themselves you should utilize semi-colons instead than commas to divide the list points as in: “Government sections such as wellness ; agribusiness. nutrient and piscaries ; the foreign office and employment. ” 2. Where you are utilizing a modification word or look at the beginning of a sentence. such as: • • • • ‘However. it is best. . ’ ‘For illustration. we can see … ‘Unfortunately. you should cognize. . ‘Firstly. it is improbable. .

3. Where the sentence would be equivocal without it. For illustration: “I decided on an change of course” means that you changed your class. whereas: “I decided on an change. of course” agencies that. of course. you decided to do an change. 4. To demo where you have inserted a phrase. For
illustration: “Teddy. who is usually the best in the squad. had a really hapless lucifer. ” In any such instance the sentence should still do sense if you remove the portion between the commas.

4. 3. 4 Exclamation Markss
There are merely two grounds of all time to utilize an exclaiming grade: 1. Where there is an exclaiming as in “Do it now! ” . “Help! ” 2. As the mathematical notation for the factorial map. as in “the figure 4! is equal to the figure 24” You should ne’er utilize an exclaiming grade at the terminal of a sentence to bespeak that the sentence was supposed to be amusing. Many people do this and it is both stupid and raging. If the sentence was amusing. the reader should hold found it funny without holding to be told to express joy. If the sentence was non amusing the exclaiming grade will hold merely confirmed to the reader that you are a hapless author. Either manner you lose in the eyes of the reader.

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4. 4 Drumhead
• The lone certain manner to avoid spelling mistakes and wrong vocabulary is to utilize a dictionary whenever you are diffident of anything. However. there are common illustrations of words that cause mistakes and you can larn these. Use English instead than American spelling unless you are aiming an American audience. Abbreviations should be used merely where necessary. Apostrophes should merely be used to demo ownership or to demo that a missive has been missed out. All other utilizations ( particularly when used before the ‘s’ in plurals ) are incorrect. There are simple regulations to larn for when to utilize commas. In general. nevertheless. composing shorter sentences means utilizing fewer commas. Apart from its particular usage in mathematics you should merely utilize an exclaiming grade in an exclaiming. Never use it to state the reader that a sentence was
supposed to be amusing.

• • • • •

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5. Basic construction for studies
Although this papers is chiefly about bettering the content of your authorship ( by understanding rules of good manner ) it is of import that you foremost larn what is the needed construction of a proficient or concern papers. The subdivision covers the followers: • • • • • • What every study should incorporate ( Section 5. 1 ) General layout ( Section 5. 2 ) Sections and subdivision enumeration ( Section 5. 3 ) The function of debuts ( Section 5. 4 ) Figures and tabular arraies ( Section 5. 5 ) Particular subdivision about pupil undertaking studies ( Section 5. 6 )

5. 1 What every study should incorporate
Make certain every study contains the undermentioned basic information: • • • • • • • • Title Author name ( s ) . association and contact inside informations Date Version figure Abstract ( if more than 5 pages ) . which is basically an executive drumhead Page Numberss Table of contents ( if more than 10 pages ) Conclusions ( if more than 5 pages )

It is unbelievable how many studies fail to incorporate this basic information. Many pupils. for illustration. frequently even fail to set their name on their studies. The first four points above must look on the front page. The abstract can look on the front page or before the tabular array of contents. Ideally. each page should hold a heading and a footer ( in Microsoft Word you create headings and footers from the View bill of fare ) . The heading should incorporate
the writer. rubric. and version figure. The footer should incorporate the day of the month and page figure. Page Numberss should look sooner in the signifier “Page n/m” where m is entire figure of pages. In MS Word it is easy to bring forth the figure matching to entire figure of pages automatically – merely infix the field “NUMPAGES” ( chink on Insert/Field bill of fare and so merely choose NUMPAGES ) . Assuming you are utilizing a word-processing system you should bring forth the tabular array of contents automatically. In Microsoft Word the bill of fare option Insert Indexes and Tables brings you to the needed functionality. An automatically generated tabular array of contents will pick up headers that you have nominated as subdivisions and subdivisions etc.

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Any study that is capable to a reappraisal process should besides incorporate a ‘change history’ page. where the version Numberss and day of the months are listed with the chief alterations that were made.

5. 2 General layout
You should evidently seek to do your study attractive to look at. However. this does non intend adding nonmeaningful frills such as cosmetic boundary lines or unneeded artworks. which really detract from your message. Figures and tabular arraies ( see Section 5. 5 ) are first-class for interrupting up text. supplying that they are truly helpful in clear uping your statement or better still if they are used alternatively of a tedious textual description. You should besides interrupt the study up with subdivisions and headers. as described here in Section 5. 3. One of the simplest ways to do your study attractive is by lodging to the undermentioned rules about founts. spacing and borders: • Fonts: Apart from headers and caption labels. you should by and large utilize the same fount and fount size throughout. The Times New Roman font at 11pt or 12pt is a good
pick. Spacing: It is good to hold plentifulness of white infinite on a page. However. double-spacing throughout is overkill. unless you are bring forthing a bill of exchange that you want person to footnote. Using a fount like Times New Roman with the spacing set as individual in MS Word looks all right ( that is how this papers is set up ) . However. what is important is that you should ever go forth infinites between paragraphs. In this papers the infinite between paragraphs is defined by puting Format Paragraph Spacing After to 6pt in Microsoft Word. That manner when you start a new paragraph the right infinite is automatically inserted. You should avoid utilizing the passenger car return to make infinite between paragraphs. Margins: Leave broad borders ( 1. 25in is good ) . For formal studies it is besides best to utilize the ‘right justify’ .

5. 3 Sections and subdivision enumeration
Any study longer than four pages should be broken up into subdivisions utilizing the undermentioned rules: • • • • • Sections should be numbered ( sooner utilizing numbers. 1. 2. 3. . . ) . Whatever totaling convention you use you must be consistent. Each subdivision should hold a proper header that accurately reflects the stuff contained within it. Long subdivisions should be broken up into subdivisions. which should be numbered n. 1. n. 2. etc. where N is the subdivision figure. Long subdivisions should be broken up into subsubsections which should be numbered n. m. 1. n. m. 2. etc where N is the subdivision figure. m is the subdivision figure. Never usage numbered decomposition smaller than subsubsections. Alternatively. utilize slug points. itemised lists. numbered lists. numbered illustrations. etc. alternatively ( see Section 3. 2 for more on these ) .

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In what follows we will utilize the word constituent as the general term for a subdivision. subdivision or subsubsection. Thus constituents are the edifice blocks of the papers. There are no difficult and fast regulations about ‘how long’ a constituent should be. It is more of import that each numbered constituent contains a coherent content that is accurately summarised by its header. However. in each papers. component lengths at the same degree should non be drastically different. For illustration. a papers of 20 pages that contains 3 subdivisions. one of 18 pages and the others with one page each. is an indicant of ill structured thought. At every degree of decomposition there must ever be AT LEAST TWO constituents. Therefore. for illustration. a subdivision can incorporate either no subdivisions or at least two subdivisions. but must ne’er incorporate a lone subdivision. So. the undermentioned construction is NOT allowed: 1. Separate One 2. Separate Two 2. 1 Part TwoPointOne 3. Separate Three Here Section 2. 1 is called a ‘hanging’ subdivision. There must ne’er be hanging constituents. However. the followers is All right: 1. Separate One 2. Separate Two 2. 1 Part TwoPointOne 2. 2 Part TwoPointTwo 3. Part Three So it is absolutely acceptable to hold some subdivisions without any subdivisions.

5. 4 The important function of ‘introductions’ and sum-ups
The undermentioned regulations explain the nature of ‘introductions’ at different degrees of decomposition: • The first subdivision of any study should be an debut and overview of the full study. It should stop by giving a walkthrough of the subsequent subdivisions. Look at Section 1 of this study for an illustration. Where a subdivision is broken into subdivisions the text instantly before the first subdivision should be an debut and overview of the full subdivision. It should stop by giving a walkthrough of the subsequent subdivisions. Look at Section 3 of this study for an illustration. Note that Section 2 is non an illustration because it has no subdivisions. Where a subdivision is broken into subsubsections the text instantly before the first subsubsection should be an debut and overview of the full subdivision. It should stop by giving a walkthrough of the subsequent subsubsections.

In other words. at each degree of decomposition. predating the first chief constituent at that degree there should be an debut and overview of the set of constituents at that degree. This introductory text should state what is contained in each of the constituents. Therefore:

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1. Section One ( Introduction ) This is the debut to the full study. This study is about bombast bombast bombast. This study contains two chief subdivisions. Section 2 screens … . Section 3 screens … . . 2. First chief subdivision Since this subdivision is broken into two subdivisions. the text here should merely province what the intent of this subdivision is and what is covered in Section 2. 1 and Section 2. 2 2. 1 Section TwoPointOne The text for subdivision 2. 1 goes here 2. 2 Section TwoPointTwo Since this subdivision is broken into two subsubsections. the text here should merely province what the intent of this subdivision is and what is covered in Section 2. 2. 1 and Section 2. 2. 2 2. 2. 1 Section TwoPointTwoPointOne The text for subdivision 2. 2. 1 goes here 2. 2. 2 Section TwoPointTwoPointTwo The text for subdivision 2. 2. 2 goes here Section Three The text for subdivision 3 goes here. No demand for debut as it has no subdivisions. Where a subdivision has more than one subdivision it is besides utile to include a drumhead at the terminal that reminds readers of the chief points. In other words. each chief subdivision is structured as follows: 1. State readers what you are traveling to state them. 2. State them it. 3. State them what you have told them. The same is true at the top degree. because the first subdivision of the study is the debut to the whole study and the concluding subdivision is
the study sum-up.

5. 5 Figures and tabular arraies
It is good to include figures and tabular arraies in your papers because they break up the text and do it more clear. When utilizing figures and tabular arraies you should lodge to the following the regulations: • Every figure and tabular array in your papers should be numbered and labelled. as in Figure 1 ( Microsoft Word has really good characteristics for managing totaling automatically – you should larn these. )

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Figure 1: A really all right football player • Every mention to a figure or tabular array should utilize the figure of the figure or tabular array. Therefore. ne’er write something like “the figure above shows a footballer” . but write “Figure 1 shows a footballer” . Spatial mentions to figures without totaling are about ever equivocal. Furthermore. when you reformat your papers you may happen that the figure that was one time ‘above’ really appears on the top of the following page. Every figure or tabular array that appears in the papers must be cited at some point in the papers ( this is a consistence demand ) .

5. 6 A construction for pupil undertaking studies
The followers is an indicant of the sort of construction that should be used in the write-up of a pupil undertaking. In this illustration I will presume the undertaking is about constructing a Bayesian web tool for foretelling package mistakes. • • • • Abstract ( see Section 6 ) – less than one page Table of Contents Chapter 1. Introduction ( see Section 5. 4 ) Chapter 2.
Background/motivation. Should put out the context for the work – why the chosen subject is important/interesting. In the illustration this would turn to the issues of why people are interested in foretelling package mistakes and why a Bayesian web attack might be utile. This chapter could besides supply an overview of old work in package mistake anticipation and why it is missing. Chapter 3. Research. This chapter should depict your ain research into the subjects ( if it covers more than one key subject so there should be a chapter for each ) . with full mentions. In the illustration. there are really two subjects you would necessitate to look into: package mistake anticipation and Bayesian webs. but the former could travel in Chapter 2. For Bayesian webs you would be expected to supply an overview of what they are. how they are used. the tools that support them. and other similar BN applications. Chapter 4. Requirements. This chapter should depict the demands for the system you have built. together with how the demands were captured. You should utilize UML notation of usage instances.

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• •

Chapter 5. Design. This chapter should depict the high-ranking design of the system. sooner utilizing category diagrams. Chapter 6. Execution. This chapter should supply an overview of the execution. supplying information about low-level design determinations non covered in the old chapter. You should include screen shootings. You should non include the full
beginning codification. but you should include codification fragments that illustrate cardinal points or algorithms in your execution. Chapter 7. Testing. Describe what your trial programs were and how you carried them out. At the really least you should explicate how you tested against the usage instances. Chapter 8. Decisions and recommendations. Include the personal material ( what you have learnt. what was good/bad. what worked/didn’t. what you would make otherwise following clip etc. ) and general recommendations ( in the illustration this would be about constructing BN applications and package mistake anticipation ) . References. Appendices ( Log of meeting. work program. elaborate category diagrams etc ) .

• •

• •

5. 7 Drumhead and checklist for when you finish composing
The undermentioned checklist should be applied before you give even an early bill of exchange of your papers out for reappraisal: • • • • Check that the construction conforms to all the regulations described above. Read it through carefully. seeking to set yourself in the places of your possible readers. Run the papers through a spelling checker. Make certain you generate an up to day of the month tabular array of contents and mentions to figure and table Numberss ( choosing all the text and pressing the F9 key in MS Word should make all of this for you ) .

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6. Abstractions and executive sum-ups
There are two types of abstracts: descriptive and enlightening. A simple illustration of the difference is: Descriptive This study describes the advantages and disadvantages of each of the options available for covering
with the job of increased air rider traffic to Newtown and provides a recommendation for a manner frontward.

Informative This study describes the four options available for covering with the job of increased air rider traffic to Newtown. The options are 1. Construct a new track at the bing airdrome 2. Construct a new airdrome in Newtown West 3. Construct a new airdrome 30 stat mis north 4. Make nil The first three options will all supply a short-run encouragement to the local employment market. while options 2 and 3 will supply long-run economic benefits. Option 1 is comparatively inexpensive. but will merely supply a short-run solution. Option 2 is expensive and unpopular with local Newtown occupants. Option 3 is more popular. but merely as expensive. However. there is a possibility of a higher authorities subsidy for option 3. Option 4 is likely to be ruled out after the consequence of the following local elections. We recommend option 3. A descriptive abstract says what you do in the study without supplying any of the information or consequences. An enlightening abstract says what the study contains. including summarizing the chief consequences. An enlightening abstract is besides called an executive sum-up. You should ever compose enlightening abstracts instead than descriptive abstracts. Since enlightening abstracts are by and large longer. this recommendation may come as a surprise to you. Elsewhere in this papers I have emphasised the demand to compose as few words as possible. The difference here is that descriptive abstracts provide no reasonable information at all ( beyond what you might happen in the papers rubric and tabular array of contents ) . Hence. they are a complete waste of clip and infinite. They are non an option to an enlightening abstract. As a farther. more comprehensive illustration. compare the undermentioned two abstracts depicting the same instance survey: Version A ( descriptive ) This study describes a major instance survey to measure the effectivity of utilizing a formal method during package development. We describe the background of the method used and discourse the claims made in favor of these sorts of methods. We describe the experimental set-up and the peculiar package under probe. We present a scope of consequences bespeaking the fortunes under