Prior to the coming of Islam to India. Hinduism. Jainism and Buddhism were the dominant faiths. Hindooism lost its simpleness. Many philosophical schools appeared. Two different religious orders. i. e. . Vaishnavism and Saivism besides appeared within Hinduism. In class of clip Sakti worship besides came into being. Common people were confused on the manner of idolizing God. When Islam came to India. the Hindus observed many ceremonials and worshipped many Gods and Goddesses. There were all kinds of superstitious beliefs among them. Their faith had become complex in nature.
Added to these. the caste system. untouchability. blind idolizing and inequality in society caused discords among different subdivisions of the people. On the other manus Islam preached integrity of God and brotherhood of adult male. It emphasized monotheism. It attacked idol worship. It preached equality of adult male before God. The laden common people and the people branded as low castes were of course attracted towards Islam. It merely increased the competition among faiths. Fanaticism. dogmatism. and spiritual intolerance began to raise their caputs. It was to take such immoralities. spiritual leaders appeared in different parts of India. They preached pure devotedness called Bhakti to achieve God.
Beginning of the Bhakti Movement:
Bhakti means personal devotedness to God. It stresses the Union of the person with God. Bhakti motion originated in South India between the 7th and the 12th centuries A. D. . The Nayanmars. who worshipped Siva. and the Alwars. who worshipped Vishnu. preached the thought of Bhakti. They carried their message of love and devotedness to assorted parts of South India through the medium of the local linguistic communication. They preached among common people. It made some of the followings of the Vedic religion to resuscitate the old Vedic faith. Saints like Sankara. Ramanuja and Madhwa gave their constructs of God and the single psyche.
Bhakti Movement in the North:
The Bhakti motion in North India gained impulse due to the Muslim conquering. The saints of the Bhakti Movement were work forces and adult females of low beginning. They came from all castes and categories. They had visited from topographic point to put singing devotional vocals. They had besides preached the Unity of God and brotherhood of adult male. They had stressed tolerance among assorted spiritual groups. Their sermon was simple.
Principles of Bhakti Movement:
The chief rules of Bhakti motion were: ( 1 ) God is one. ( 2 ) To idolize God adult male should function humanity. ( 3 ) All work forces are equal. ( 4 ) Worshipping God with devotedness is better than executing spiritual ceremonials and traveling on pilgrim’s journeies. and ( 5 ) Caste differentiations and superstitious patterns are to be given up. The Hindu saints of the Bhakti Movement and the Muslim saints of the Sufi motion became more broad in their mentality. They wanted to acquire rid of the immoralities which had crept into their faiths. There were a figure of such saints from the 8th to 16th century A. D. .
Ramanuja: Ramanuja was one of the earliest reformists. Born in the South. he made a pilgrim’s journey to some of the holy topographic points in Northern India. He considered God as an Ocean of Love and beauty. His instructions were based on the Upanishads and Bhagwad Gita. Whatever he taught. he had taught in the linguistic communication of the common adult male. Soon a big figure of people became his followings. Ramanand was his adherent. He took his message to Northern parts of India.
Ramananda: Ramananda was the first reformist to prophesy in Hindi. the chief linguistic communication spoken by the people of the North. He was educated at Benaras. He preached that there is nil high or low. All 109 work forces are equal in the eyes of God. He was an fervent believer of Rama. He welcomed people of all castes and position to follow his instructions. He had twelve main adherents. One of them was a Barber. another was a weaver. the 3rd one was a shoemaker and the other was the celebrated saint Kabir and the 5th 1 was a adult female named Padmavathi. He considered God as a loving male parent. He lived in the fourteenth century A. D.
Kabir: Kabir was an fervent adherent of Ramananda. It is said that he was the boy of a Brahmin widow who had left him near a armored combat vehicle at Varanasi. A Muslim twosome Niru and his married woman who were weavers brought up the kid. Subsequently he became a weaver but he was attracted by the instructions of Swami Ramananda. He wanted integrity between the Hindus and the Muslims. He preached that both the Hindus and the Muslims are the kids of a individual God. He had no religion in idol worship. spiritual rites and ceremonials. He taught that Allah and Eswar. Ram and Rahim are one and the same. They are present everyplace. The fans of Kabir were known as Kabir Panthis. What Kabir said about God? I am neither in temple nor in Mosque. neither in Kaaba nor in Kailash ; I am non in any ritual or rite nor in yoga or in repudiation ; If thou be a true searcher. thou shall happen me in a minute.
He besides said: To the East is Hari. to the West Allah’s residence. hunt thy bosom. within the interior nucleus. Ram and Rahim live at that place. Thousands of people. both Hindus and Muslims became Kabir’s followings. He likely lived in the 15th century A. D.
Namdeva: Namdeva was a boatman by birth. He hailed from Maharashtra. He composed beautiful anthem in Marathi. They are full of intense devotedness to God. He worshipped Vishnu in the signifier of Lord Vithoba. Some of his poetries are included in the Guru Granth Sahib. the holy book of the Sikhs. A big figure of people from different castes became his followings.
Guru Nanak. ( A. D. 1469 – A. D. 1538 ) : Guru Nanak was the laminitis of the Sikh faith. From his childhood. he did non demo any involvement in worldly personal businesss. At the age of 29. he left his place and became a Sadhu. He went to Mecca and Medina. He had travelled far and broad to distribute his instructions. Guru Nanak had eventually settled at Karthpur. He laid accent on pure and simple life. He preached the Unity of God and condemned devotion. He was against the caste system. Guru Nanak’s followings are called the Sikhs. He started the Langer or the common kitchen. where people belonging to all castes or faiths could hold their repasts together. Nanak’s instructions were in the signifier of poetries. They were collected in a book called the Adi Granth. Later Adi Grantham was written in a book called Gurmukhi. The holy book of the Sikhs is popularly known as ‘Grantha Sahib’ . It contains poetries from Kabir. Namdeva and other Bhakti and Sufi saints.
Chaitanya ( A. D. 1485 – A. D. 1533 ) : Chaitanya. a great fan of Lord Krishna. was a saint from Bengal. From his really childhood. he had showed great involvement in instruction and studied Sanskrit. He married the girl of a Saintly individual. Subsequently at the age of 24. he renounced the secular life and became a sanyasin. He travelled all over the Deccan. Bihar. Bengal and Orissa. His followings regarded him as an embodiment of Lord Vishnu. He helped the old and the needy. He was opposed to the inequalities of the caste system. He emphasised the demand for tolerance. humanity and love. He spread the message of Bhakti in Bengal. He popularised ‘Sankritan’or public vocalizing of God’s name. His vocals are still really popular in Bengal. He was addressed `Mahaprabhu’ by his followings. Tulsi Das: Goswamy Tulsidas was a fan of Rama. His work gives the narrative of Rama in Hindi. He was the foremost in popularizing Rama cult. His other plants in Hindi are Janaki Mangal and Parvathi Mangal. In his writtings he insists the responsibility of a boy to his parent. responsibility of a pupil to his instructor and responsibility of a male monarch to his people. Rama was a beloved boy to his parents. devoted pupil to his instructor and a desirable male monarch to his topics.
Meerabai: Meerabai was a Rajput princess. She married the Rana of Mewar. She was a pious fan of Lord Krishna. She has written many vocals in congratulations of Krishna. her favorite God. in Rajastani. Her vocals or anthems are even today sung all over India. Her castle was kept unfastened to people of all castes to fall in her Bhajans of Lord Krishna. She had visited all topographic points connected with the life of Lord Krishna. She had lived for the most portion of her life in Mathura. the birth topographic point of Krishna and Vrindaban. There is a temple dedicated to Meerabai in Chittor. the capital of Mewar.
Guru Ramdas: Ramdas was a celebrated instructor. He was born in A. D. 1608. Chatrapati Shivaji. the great Maratha swayer. was a follower of Ramdas. He stressed upon the equality of all work forces before God. He said that anyone could achieve God’s favor by agencies of Bhakti. Guru Ramdas was non simply a spiritual sermonizer but besides a State Builder.
Tukaram: Tukaram was a saint who lived in Maharashtra. He composed a big figure of poetries called Abhangas or devotional vocals in congratulations of Panduranga or Krishna. He believed in one God who was sort. merciful and protective. He wrote all his abhangas in Marathi.
Jnaneshwar: He is one of the greatest saints of Maharashtra. He worshipped Vishnu in the signifier of Vithoba or Krishna. At the age of 112 14. he translated the Bhagawad Gita into the Marathi linguistic communication. This book is called Jnaneshwari.
BHAKTI MOVEMENT IN SOUTH INDIA
Nayanmars: In South India. the Nayanmars and Alwars were the celebrated saints of the Bhakti motion. The Nayanmars. the fans of Siva. were 60 three in figure. The most celebrated among them were Appar. Sundarar. Thirugnana Sambandar and Manickavachakar. These saints composed many poetries in congratulations of Lord Siva. A saint named Nambiandar Nambi collected the devotional vocals of Nayanmars. Appar. Sundarar and Thirugnana Sambandar composed the Thevaram anthem. Manickvachakar’s vocals are known as Tiruvachakam. Periyapuranam. written by Sekhizhar. tells us the life narratives of the Nayanmars.
Alwars: The Alwars were the believers of Lord Vishnu who were twelve in figure. Among them Nammalwar. Tirumangai Alwar. Andal and Perialwar were celebrated. The vocals of the Alwars were compiled in a book called Nalayira Divya Prabandham by Nadamuni. The devotional vocals of Andal is called Thiruppavai. Thirupavai vocals are celebrated in Tamilnadu. These vocals are even now sung during the Tamil month of margazhi ( December – January ) .
Basava: Basava lived in Karnataka. He founded the Virasaiva or Lingayat religious order. Harmonizing to Basava. Siva was the supreme God. Basava opposed child matrimony and idol worship.
Effectss of Bhakti Movement:
The Bhakti motion had brought the Hindus and the Muslims closer to each other. The equality construct preached by the leaders reduced the rigidness of the caste system to a certain extent. The suppressed people gained a feeling of self-respect. The reformists preached in local linguistic communications. It led to the development of Common literature. They composed anthem and vocals in the linguistic communications spoken by the people. Therefore there was a singular growing of literature in all the linguistic communications. A new linguistic communication Urdu. a mixture of Persian and Hindi. was developed. The Bhakti motion freed the common people from the dictatorship of the priests. It checked the surpluss of polytheism. It encouraged the spirit of acceptance. The spread between the Hindus and the Muslims was reduced. They began to populate amicably together. It emphasised the value of a pure life of charity and devotedness. Finally. it improved the moral and religious ways of life of the mediaeval society. It provided an illustration for the future coevals to populate with the spirit of acceptance.