Social Theory Examination Paper Essay

The manner persons learn to interact with society as kids tends to foretell how they will interact with society and respond to its environments as grownups. There are societal theories that help the apprehension of why persons choose aberrant behaviours and how they progress through life. Social procedure theories view condemnable and aberrant condemnable behaviours as germinating mechanisms learned through social interaction. Social development theories view aberrant and condemnable behaviours as portion of a ripening procedure. Social theories are decisions that have come about based on the response of persons to their environments. what they have been taught. what they have learned through their experiences. and how they react to those experiences in society. Social procedure theories views criminalism as s map of people’s interactions with assorted groups and establishments in society. A person’s behaviour is greatly influenced by the positive and negative supports of their behaviour. This influence can be referred to as the differential support theory. The differential theory provinces that the procedure of larning aberrant behaviour and the procedure of larning conventional behaviour is the exact same procedure. The thought is that felons are non taught to be wholly bad and typical members of society are non taught to be wholly good. No condemnable interruptions all of the regulations and no member of society obeys all of the regulations. Alternatively. some sense of balance is created and as clip goes on a societal group is adopted.

The single makes a pick to be a aberrant or normal member of society based on what is reinforced. Negative support discourages a peculiar behaviour. Positive support encourages a peculiar behaviour. The wagess for a peculiar behaviour frequently dictates which behavior the single chooses to go on based on the consequences of the wages. As a kid. if wagess are given for good behaviour. making jobs. doing good classs in school. being respectful and things of that nature. the kid is likely to go on the behaviour which in bend produces a continuance of good responsible behaviour that is accepted by society. This behaviour is contributing of a jurisprudence abiding. productive member of society. On the other manus. if the kid commits a aberrant act or exhibits aberrant behaviour and is rewarded for them. or is non punished or reprimanded for such behaviour. they will probably go on those types of behaviours as good. For illustration. if a immature miss has an older sister who steals from shops and does non acquire caught. but continues to hold all the nice things she has stolen. the younger sibling will desire those things every bit good and will probably utilize stealing as a method of obtaining those things because that is the behaviour that has been seen and learned by her. She is in a manner encouraged by this aberrant act.

Harmonizing to Akers ( 2006 ) . “Deviant behaviour can be expected to the extent that it has been differentially reinforced over alternate behavior… . . and is desirable or justified. ” ( p. 206 ) . Condemnable behaviour is committed when the bonds to society are weakened. The individual loses touch with what is right versus what is incorrect or they ne’er learn the difference. All persons have the capableness to perpetrate offense. but frequently times the fright of what people will believe of them tends to maintain them from perpetrating offenses if they are attached to society through friends. organisations. equals. or household. The four elements that govern this type of pick are attachment. committedness. engagement. and belief.

The picture on Pelican Bay is a great illustration of these societal procedure theories. Most of the inmates that were locked up continued their behavior inside of the prison as if they were still on the streets. They learned that contending and killing were a manner of life no affair what type of environment they lived in. They killed while in prison and some even ordered hits on the exterior from inside prison walls. In a sense nil had changed merely the method of acquiring it done. The picture raised consciousness of the violent offenses that occur within the Pelican Bay prison system. The inmates seemed to hold control of the installation and assorted offenses were frequently committed at the same rate or more so inside of the prison. This is because making Pelican Bay is considered to be an achievement to many inmates. Once they reach Pelican Bay. they have “made it” within the penal system. Once they make it at that place. the persons have an image to keep.

They have to turn out that they are worthy of being there by continually perpetrating slayings. round downs. telling hits. and disobeying and disrespecting the staff. In the picture it was mentioned that the inmates frequently left the prison worse than when they came. The stay at the establishment did small to no good to help in some type of rehabilitation. but it reinforced the aberrant behaviour that was already present and perchance created more aberrant behaviour. The single left a worse felon than when he came. This is because his behaviour while in prison was rewarded by his equals. More than probably he gained regard. rank in some pack. and a name associated with his behaviour. This picture was an illustration of what the societal procedure theory is. The inmates reacted harmonizing to where they were and what they were affiliated with. They were inmates in a prison housed with other inmates who have committed assorted offenses.

One definition of societal development is the procedure of forming human energies and activities at higher degrees to accomplish greater consequences. Bing that negative behaviour was reinforced and rewarded to the inmates at Pelican Bay by their equals. the inmates continued those negative behaviours and even done so at a higher degree than normal to have greater position. This portion of their society has taught them the regulation of endurance of the fittest. In a prison puting such as Pelican Bay. there is no room for the weak. The weak would be those who are considered “snitches” for stating when the regulations are being broken or when person has harmed another individual. In a prison environment. being a fink is a decease sentence. The aberrant behaviour by those inmates is so rough and aberrant that the individual who did the hit for single behind bars was killed for non making it in a manner that was subpar to the manner that the individual who ordered the hit thought it should be done. Somewhere down the line in the lives of these felons. aberrant behaviour became a manner of life and was approved so the behaviour was continued even in a topographic point where they are punished for their aberrant behaviour.

Social development theory efforts to explicate qualitative alterations in the construction and model of society that helps the society to better recognize its purposes and aims. Society develops in response to reach and interaction between human existences and their stuff. societal. and rational environment. The presence of external menaces. the force per unit area of societal and physical conditions. and the complexnesss of human behaviour prompt worlds to experiment. create. and innovate ways of populating under different stimulations. Basically. a manner to last. believe. and behave is created based on the environment of the person. Development is a procedure of societal alteration and is non to be confused with merely policies and plans instituted for specific grounds. Development requires resources. such as money. engineering. and a encouraging substructure. Development is besides a consequence of society’s capacity to form these resources to run into challenges and chances. Not everyone faces the same challenges. nor do they have the same chances. An person can be underdeveloped every bit good. Many persons tend to seek what they lack in society from someplace else. This does non ever lead to deviant behaviour. but if that is what is accepted and developed. it will be what is repeated. The rate at which development occurs depends on the degree that the society is in.

Society develops over centuries. Human development usually returns from experience to comprehension. The fact that experience precedes cognition can be taken to intend that development is an unconscious procedure that gets carried out foremost. while cognition becomes witting subsequently on. If a person’s parents ever obeyed the jurisprudence. ever went to work. and were sort and gentle to their kids. this behaviour unconsciously becomes repeated by the kids. It is the same manner as a male child who is raised with a male parent who beats the female parent. The male child unconsciously learns to crush on adult females and to devaluate them. Children learn by what they see and experience quicker than what they learn by being told. Unless the kid who has watched his male parent beat his female parent learns otherwise. he is more than probably to go on that type of aberrant behaviour. The construct that experience precedes cognition is really relevant and credible. Before kids learn to read. they learn by illustrations and their ain experiences. If they touch a hot range and acquire burned they learn the range is hot quicker than they would by the female parent merely stating them the range is hot. That is the same thing that has happened with the grownups in Pelican Bay who continuously exhibit aberrant behaviour. Their experience Teachs them they need the force to last. It is rather reasonable to presume that over clip they have heard or been taught that aberrant behaviour is incorrect and leads them to roast and punished by society. but the experiences that they have had has taught them that this behaviour is necessary. Bing that worlds frequently surround themselves with people who are like-minded. they are besides accepted by their equals.

Another facet on societal development theory is being an pioneer. One has to be taught how to bring forth new thoughts and new methods to work out jobs. In society it is done on a day-to-day footing. A hubby may necessitate more money. so he finds a 2nd occupation to bring forth more income. but a individual who has exhibited aberrant behaviour may rob a local convenience shop as a means to obtain more income. In their heads they have non committed a offense. but merely found a manner to work out a job within their family’s fundss. They have become an pioneer in their heads Not all aberrant behaviour is based on bad purposes. Often times. the behaviour is justifiable to individual who commits the behaviour. They may experience they have to hit person to maintain from being killed themselves. That is known as justification. Many perverts feel that they are justified in their actions even when society tells them that the behaviour is incorrect. They see no other means around their state of affairs. The person will hold to be taught how to introduce legal agencies and solutions to their jobs. They have to be taught that at no clip is stealing or taking from person justified. This can turn out to be really difficult to make if they have merely their experiences to travel by. They will hold to organize a whole new manner of thought.

In the societal procedure theory. it is believed that people can larn to perpetrate offenses even if they have non experienced perpetrating offenses or been raised that manner. One does hold control over their ain actions. It is besides believed that society recognizes when a individual has a leaning to perpetrate a offense before they really commit a offense. One manner of analyzing this is when a kid is ascertained aching animate beings or other kids at an early age. Besides. there is a labeling theory where it is believed that one time a individual has been labeled a felon. they will more than probably go a calling felon. If society knows these things. why non take better actions such as supplying the immature kid who abuses animate beings. therapy on how to command his desire to make so? The effects of society altering societal policies to assist future coevalss would be really good to future coevalss. There would be aid in the signifier of reding to those kids who exhibit those criminalistics behaviours. but reding and plans for those who have already committed offenses. There should be system in topographic point that helps them to return to society in a new manner. Even if they choose the same manner of life. the chance to make something different should still be made available to them. Many felons want a new manner of making things. but are caught in the barbarous rhythm of condemnable behaviour with no cognition of how to populate without perpetrating offenses.

In decision. a individual fundamentally learns by the experiences they have in life more than they learn by being taught. Social procedure theory relates a person’s condemnable life or condemnable activity to what groups or interactions that the individual has. Social development theory relates a person’s condemnable behaviour to what the individual has learned in society from equals. household. and those that influence how they have developed as a individual. In both theories. the behaviours are learned from experience and interactions. Education and therapy for persons who have inclinations to perpetrate aberrant behaviour or who have already committed aberrant behaviour can greatly impact the manner they react to certain state of affairss in society. Society can alter the manner perverts are viewed and labeled. Education and clip are needed in order to discourage condemnable behaviour in society.

Akers. R. ( 2006 ) . Parental and peer influences on adolescent drug usage in Korea. Asiatic Journal of Criminology. Schmalleger. F. ( 2012 ) . Criminolgy today: An synergistic debut. ( 6th ed. ) . Upper Saddle River. New jersey: Prentice Hall. World Wide Web. icpd. org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory. htm