This essay will be concerned with foregrounding the advancement that has been made towards sustainable conveyance in a metropolis in the underdeveloped universe. The apporach which will be used in the study will be a instance survey attack and to this terminal, the metropolis of focal point will be the Indian metropolis of Kolkata. At this point, it is deserving supplying a brief overview of the construction for this study. Following this debut will be a background subdivision which will cover conveyance in Kolkata and the principle behind the demand for sustainable conveyance in the metropolis. This subdivision will be succeeded by the chief organic structure of the study where there will be an assessment of the assorted solutions that are being enacted in the metropolis in order to convey about sustainable conveyance. It should be mentioned that this assessment will be be geared toward measuring whether all these policy solutions can efficaciously convey about sustainable conveyance in the metropolis. On completion of this subdivision of the study, there will be a decisions subdivision where some of the chief covered will be summarized. In this subdivision of the essay, it should be noted that some self-asserting statements will be made in respects to the policy measures that have been introduced in the metropolis. It is besides deserving adverting that a bibliography of mentions will be furnished at the terminal of the study.
Background and principle for sustainable conveyance in Kolkata
Kolkata is noted to be one of the metropoliss in the development universe which has some of the highest degrees of pollution in footings of C02 emanations. In fact, the metropolis is noted to be among the top 3 in the universe in footings of traffic pollution. The metropolis besides has some of the highest degrees of traffic congestion, noise pollution and traffic accidents. With all these issues of class come assorted wellness effects within the metropolis. Specifically, the traffic pollution in the signifier of emanations has raised the degrees of benzine in the metropolis ‘s ambiance and this is in fact serious job because of the carcinogenic menace of benzine ( Jana 2008, p 65 ) .
Furthermore, the traffic congestions within the metropolis has contributed to economic loss over the old ages because of the close stagnancy of economic activities which it causes. It has besides been documented that there are around 20,000 route accidents in Kolkata every twelvemonth and out this arise about 480 deceases each twelvemonth. About 64 % of these entire deceases comprise of Kolkata walkers. Hence, it can be seen that the traffic state of affairs the metropolis is one which has some inauspicious economic, wellness and societal effects on the metropolis. For this ground, there is the demand for the governments within the metropolis to explicate policies for sustainable conveyance ( Whitelegg 2003, p 56 ) . It can be seen from the tabular array below that there has been about an exponential addition in the figure of vehicles on roads between 1951 and 2002. Furthermore, the per centum growing in the figure of vehicles on the roads has been more than 60 % . Another of import point that should be mentioned relates to the fact that statistics show that the figure of vehicles on the route in the metropolis will make a figure of 2.3 million by 2015 ( Jana 2008, p 67 ) .
Growth of Vehicles
Entire no of vehicles ( in Thousands )
Entire ( in No. )
Entire ( in No. )
Beginning: 1 ) Department of Road Transport and Highways, GOI ; 2 ) Statistical Abstract, 2005-2006, Government of West Bengal ; 3 ) Statistical Handbook, West Bengal, 1999- Bureau of Applied Economics & A ; Statisticss, Government of West Bengal
Main organic structure
There have been a overplus of solutions which have been devised by the conveyance governments and regional authorities of Kokat which is the authorities of the province of West Bengal. It is clear that some of these policy solutions are more capable of conveying about sustainable conveyance than others. In the visible radiation of this, these policies will now be appraised for their effectivity.
One of the policy solutions which has been introduced is to make with the maximization of conveyance related assets and substructure. The railroads and the tram systems servign the metropolis have been known to be under utilised and in demand of renovation. Furthermore, many subdivision of particularly the ropeway system were closed until late when stairss were made to open them. Furthermore, there was the demand to put in the tube coach system which served the metropolis in order to do the coachs more comfy, modernised, safe and clean. The authorities has now been presenting policy steps that are aimed at plowing in money in to these countries in order to better their efficiency and grade of use. It has besides been cited that the River Hooghly and the canal system offer great potency for alternate agencies of conveyance within the metropolis because of the less emanation created by H2O conveyance and the fact that there is no traffic congestion involved with this type of transit ( Agarwal 1991, p 33 ) .
As such, the metropolis has now began to see puting in a round waterway system. Furthermore, it is besides of import to advert that Kolkata has already taken stairss to present mass rapid theodolite systems ( MRTS ) as portion of its command to better rail transit services. It can be said that on the whole, these steps will travel a long manner in guaranting that sustainable conveyance is introduced in to the metropolis. This is particularly true in respects to the investing which is being carried out on the railroads and waterways. It is besides clear that ropeway, rail nd H2O transit are all more efficient and safer than route transit. As a consequence, they can assist lend towards a decrease in traffic related deceases and congestion ( Jana 2008 ) .
The usage of alternate fuels has besides been one of the policies that has been introduced by the authorities in Kolkata. This has been a world-wide attempt and the authorities is presently looking in to this. The chief options are H and solar power for the running of motor vehicles. These alternate fuels are ofcourse more friendly to the environment in footings of CO2 emanations ( Ison 2008, p 54 ) . However, the execution of these policies in Kolkata and in merely about everyplace else in the universe is in its research stage. As such, there have no existent practical solutions introduced in this respect. However, one time the solutions have wholly matured, it is clear that the job of benzine pollution Kolkata in peculiar will be reduced, if non eliminated. There is no uncertainty that emanations are a major job in the metropolis and this can be illustrated utilizing the tabular array below. The tabular array shows the top states for C02 emanations in the universe. It can be seen that India as a whole is the 4th highest C02 emitter in the universe behind states like the US and Japan.
CO2 ( Mt )
( % )
Beginning: World Energy Outlook for the twelvemonth 2004, International Energy Agency
One of the chief issues which has been adversely impacting the transit and traffic system in Kolkata has been unequal route infinite. This job has come approximately partially as a consequence of the rise in the figure of motor vehicles on the route and as a consequence of ill demarcated conveyance systems within the metropolis, deficiency of parking infinite and about non-existent parking policies. As such, stairss are now being taken to rectify these lacks in order to better traffic flow. The policy solutions that are being developed in this country will travel a long manner in bettering traffic congestion degrees in the metropolis and this will in bend cut down nursery gas emanation degrees. Furthermore, it is besides clear that these steps will better overall fuel ingestion within the metropolis ( Davies 2009 ) .
Another key steps which has been introduced within the metropolis of Kolkata relates to the fact that policies have besides been introduced in order to better transit for bicyclers and walkers within the metropolis. The purpose of this is to better safety of both walkers and bicyclers and to promote people to walk and rhythm to assorted finishs. This in bend helps to restrict traffic congestion, accidents affecting walkers and the similar. In peculiar, the micro degree policies that have been introduced in this respect have involved the care of walking paths, guaranting that walking pavings are in good status every bit good as taking assorted obstructors, jumble and the similar. The grade to which this policy step can assist convey about sustainable conveyance can non be excessively stressed upon. However, the full impact that could be yielded may non be seen for many old ages to come ( Black 2002, p 80 ) .
Furthermore, the metropolis has besides introduced Euro I, II and III steps since the 1980s in order to cut down CO2 emanations. The tabular array below shows how the metropolis has been able to implement these policy steps. However, surveies have shown that these steps have done really small to cut down CO2 emanations from local beginnings ( World Bank 1996 ) . The same survey besides shows that it has done really small cut down greenhouse gas emanations in the metropolis. Hence, it is clear that this policy will non truly assist convey about sustainable conveyance within the metropolis of Kolkata.
No. of coachs
( liter )
CO2 emanations ( kg/ kilometer )
It has been shown in this study that there have been a figure of policy steps that have been introduced in Kolkata in order to convey about sustainable conveyance in the metropolis. It is clear that some of these steps are more effectual than others when it comes to accomplishing this aim. However, it can be said that the most effectual steps that have been introduced to day of the month relate to the investing outgo that has been carried out on the rail systems in peculiar. The alternate conveyance provided by rail will assist relieve congestions on roads which will in bend aid cut down emanation degrees. It has besides been deduced that the majority of the steps which have been introduced in the metropolis have been based on planning policy devising and investing outgo. As such, there has non been many steps to make with the debut of new engineerings to assist with the job of emanations in peculiar. In order for there to be complete sustainable conveyance within the metropolis, it will be necessary for the authorities to do more technological ascents within the metropolis ‘s conveyance system. In the visible radiation of this, it can be safely said that the steps which have been introduced in Kolkata to day of the month are reasonably effectual in conveying about sustainable conveyance. On the whole, it is clear that more comprehensive attempts need to be made in order to convey about sustainable conveyance within the metropolis ( Cazorla 2000, p 12 ) .