On Drama Translation Essay

Like their modern-day prose transcribers who were presenting Western fiction to China. budding playwrights were enthusiastic about conveying Western dramas to the Chinese phase. The first drama was staged in Japan from an version of Lin Shu’s interlingual rendition of Uncle Tom’s Cabin. A Chinese pupil in Japan named Li Shutong adapted the book. The drama was put on by members of the Chun Liu ( Spring Willow ) Drama Society. Their public presentation marked a complete interruption from traditional theatrical patterns. After the May 4th Movement. complete interlingual renditions of dramas were published and used in productions.

Many established authors began to seek their manus at authorship books for the phase. Besides in the debut of foreign chef-d’oeuvres. a batch of celebrated transcribers were produced. If we have a attempt at play. we can happen it really hard. more hard than the interlingual rendition of novels. Actually. play is really different from novel. And drama interlingual rendition must be done in a much different manner. First. play books are written for phase public presentation. So the translated books must be suited for the audience. But poems. prose and novels are written for reading. Though sometimes foreign books are produced merely for reading. there are rarely the instances.

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Besides the foreign dramatists would be against that. Second. play public presentation is a comprehensive ways of moving. It is an audio-visual art. which needs lighting. phase belongingss. and sound effects. The lines by the histrions contribute a great trade to the success of the drama. The audience relies to a great extent on the lines of the drama. Most of them are ordinary people. but non learned bookmans. The histrions normally don’t reiterate the words except for the interest of puting emphasis. If the lines are excessively vague. the audience will acquire confused as a drama goes on without a halt. Third. there aren’t any notes in a phase public presentation.

In a novel. the concealed purpose of the characters. the natural and societal background. cause and consequence of the elusive alterations of the emotions can be stated by the storyteller. So the readers can hold on the whole text and better understand it. But in a drama public presentation. the audience get information merely from the lines of the characters. Further more. foreign dramatists frequently use wordplaies or allusions in a drama. It is truly hard to interpret them in simple linguistic communication due to the cultural differences. For illustration. an allusion in the original drama may be really appropriate and edifying.

But a actual interlingual rendition of it may do great problem to the Chinese. And an note for the allusion is non executable because in phase public presentation. an histrion can’t speak the note. He can merely utilize gestural linguistic communication. phase belongingss to connote it. So drama interlingual rendition sets higher criterions for the interlingual renditions. So the above-named three characters of play require a popular and simple linguistic communication of the interlingual rendition. For illustration. in the revised version of the interlingual rendition by Yang xianyi of Pygmalion by Bernard Shaw. the transcriber adds some words. depute some to do the 2nd version simpler in enunciation and construction.

Example 1: The Mother: ( to Clara ) Give it to me. ( Clara parts reluctantly ) Now ( to the miss ) this is for your flowers. ( Act I ) [ First version ] ? ? ( ? ? ? ? ) ? ? ? ? ? ( ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ) ( ? ? ? ? ) ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? [ 1 ] ( P. 9 ) [ Second version ] ? ? ( ? ? ? ? ) ? ? ? ? ? ( ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ) ( ? ? ? ? ) ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? [ 2 ] ( P. 462 ) In the first version. the translated sentence “ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ”seems more faithful and close to the original text. But it is awkward sounding. But the revised version is easier for pronunciation and causes no cause in apprehension: in the text. the money is certainly the compensation for the flower but non other things.

Example 2: Algernon: Ah! That must be Aunt Augusta. Merely relatives. or creditors. of all time pealing in that Wagnrian mode. This is from the Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde. a line by Algergon. when he hears the rings of the bell. Wagner refers to a celebrated German dramatist Richard Wagner who is celebrated for his empyreal manner. A actual interlingual rendition of it will do great problem for the Chinese because they don’t know Wagner. allow alone his manner. But Yu guangzhang translates it as “ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ” . [ 3 ] ( p. 129 ) The phrase “ ? ? ? ? ”is heavy and a small spot overstating.

But it is so graphic that it presents an chesty blue adult female to us. Example 3: Hamlet: Expression here upon this image. and on this. The imitative notification of two brothers. See what a grace was seated on this forehead: Hyperion’s coil. the forepart of Jove himself. An oculus like Mars. to endanger and command. A station like the herald Mercury New lighted on a [ Eden ] caressing hill. a combination and a signifier so. Where every God did look to put his seal To give the universe confidence of a adult male. This is your hubby. ( The Calamity of Hamlet. Act III. scene IV ) [ Liang shiqiu’ version ] ? ? ? ? : ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ?

. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ; ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ; ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ; ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ; ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ; ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? : ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? [ 4 ] In this paragraph. the Gods Hyperion. Jove. Mars. Mercury are non familiar to the Chinese audience. They may be confused by a transliteration. Though Liang shiqiu uses notes that will non assist much. The audience can non hold a book while watching. But Zhu shenghao is more tactful in his interlingual rendition. [ Zhu shenghao’ version ] ? ? ? ? : ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? : ? ? ? ? ? ? ; ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ; ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? [ 5 ] In this version. Zhu shenghao avoids the transliteration of unfamiliar names. Alternatively he hold on their symbols and personal traits. So the audience could follow the drama more easy though they don’t retrieve the specific names of these characters. Since play is chiefly written for phase public presentation. it is different from novels. prose and verse forms. We can read novels easy and casually. If we can’t understand some portion of it. we can reread it and chew over on it. A first reading of a novel may intend nil to you. As we read it clip and once more. we can delve deeper and deeper into it.

But in drama public presentation. “ its intent is to convey about sudden turbulences of the highest moral nature. ” [ 6 ] ( p. 44 ) So drama linguistic communication should non merely be simple and apprehensible. but besides must vividly show the personalities of the characters in a specific historical period. To avoid the stereotype. the transcriber must pay much attending to the functions of the characters in relation to others. The tones. modulation and enunciation of the characters should besides be noticed. Example 4 The BYSTANDERS GENERALLY ( showing against police espionage ) Course they could. What concern is it of yours?

You mind your ain personal businesss. He wants publicity. he does. Taking down people’s words! Girl ne’er said a word to him. What injury if she did? Nice thing a miss can’t shelter from the rain without being insulted. ECT. . ECT. ( Act I ) [ first version ] ? ? ? ? ? ( ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ! ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ! ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? . ? ? . ? ? ? [ 7 ] ( p. 17 ) [ 2nd version ] ? ? ? ? ? ( ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ) ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ! ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ! ? ? ? ! ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? . ? ? . ? ? ? [ 8 ] ( p. 465 ) The 2nd version of the interlingual rendition adds the exclaiming “ ? ? ? ” . It can vividly demo the oppugning tone of the bystanders.

If the histrions tactfully express it on the phase. which will pull the understanding from the audience toward the supporter. Another illustration of the flexible interlingual rendition can be shown in “Romeo and Julie” Friar Laurence: Here comes the lady ; / O. so light a pes /Will ne’er wear out the everlasting flint ; / A lover may hop on the gossamers/ That idles in the wanton summer air. / And yet non fall: so light is amour propre. [ Cao yu’s version ] ? ? ? ? ? : ? ? ? ? . ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? [ 9 ] [ Zhu shenghao’s version ] ? ? ? : ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ; ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . [ 10 ] The 2nd version of the duologue is better. In the first version. the last sentence “ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ”is obscure. The 2nd version of this sentence“ ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ” can suit in good with the profession of Fiar Laurence. It vividly depicts a priest who is greatly concerned about the belongingss of the church and is devoted to his work. Another of import facet of play is the scene of motion. In drama public presentation. the motion of histrions will do struggles. The struggles will force frontward the development of the narrative. Then the audience will be interested and follow the show.

So the histrion must move on their personalities. purposes and run into struggles with each other. And linguistic communication should demo the sort of motion. In Thunderstorm by Cao yu. the ferocious contradiction between labour and capital can be read in the duologues. So the linguistic communication is full of motions. For illustration: ? ? ? : ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ! ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ! ? ? ? ? —— Hai: You drowned two thousand two 100 coolies in cold blood. and for each life lost you raked in three hundred dollars! I tell you. animal. you’ve made your money by killing people. and you and your boies stand accursed everlastingly!

And now on top of that you—— [ 11 ] ( p. 492 ) Literally. the word “ ? ? ? ”is merely naming the name of Zhou puyuan in an impolite manner. But its interlingual rendition shows the crisp resistance between him and Zhou puyuan. Besides it hints that Hai will revenge on Zhou. So it is full of motions. In the Importance of being Earnest. Yu guangzhong is besides good at demoing the motions in the linguistic communication. For illustration: Algernon: how are you. my beloved Ernest? What brings you up to town? Jack: Oh. pleasance ; pleasance!

What else should convey one anyplace? Yu guangzhong translates it as “ ? . ? ? ? ? ? ! ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ” [ 12 ] ( p. 126 ) Yu knows that Jack is a dandified drama male child. In the drama. he merely comes to Algernon for merriment. The interlingual rendition is far better than “ ? ? ” . and will hold with his proposal to Miss Bracknell. Finally. dramatic linguistic communication should be refined and full of emotions. Without poetic sentiment. duologues are half-dead. [ 13 ] The linguistic communication of play should hold beat. be rich in significance and full of mute words.

In the play by Ibsen. Shakespeare. and Caoyu. we can experience the strong emotions and mellowness of their linguistic communication. For illustration. in Caoyu’s interlingual rendition of Romeo and Julie. we are overwhelmed by his sparkling humor.

Julie: Since arm from arm that voice doth us altercation. / Hunting thee hence with hunt’s-up to the twenty-four hours. [ Cao’ version ] ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? [ 14 ] In the original linguistic communication. the word “affray” rimes with “day” . So the sentence can be read fluently. Cao is cagey plenty to stop each clause with “ ? ” and “ ? ” . so they still rhyme with each other. Besides the beat and entreaty are attained. Another illustration of the poetical emotions can be shown in Yang xianyi’s interlingual rendition of Quyuan by Guo moruo. “ ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ! ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ! ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ! ? ? ? . ? ! ? ? ? . ? ! ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? . ? ? . ? ? . ? ? ? ! ” [ Cao’s version ]