The process of planning, organizing, leading & controlling the efforts of an organization members & of using all other organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goals”(Stoner) Definition of Organization & Manager Organization 0 “A group of individuals who work together toward common goals” (Lewis) 0 “The structure of relationships that exits when 2 or more people mutually cooperates to pursue common objectives” (Holt) 0 “An organization is a social unit in which 2 or more people interact to achieve a common goal or a set of goals” (Stone) Manager 0 “An organizational member who is responsible for planning, organizing, leading and controlling the activities of the organization so that its goals are achieved” (Lewis) Why do we need an organization? 1. 002. O Accomplish objectives To help us to achieve our objectives E. G. You come to CCITT to study & obtain a diploma Preserve knowledge Organization is also needed because it is a place where knowledge / information is preserved. E. G. To know about our country’s history, we can go to museum. Serve society Organization is also needed to serve society o E. G. We can always go to hospitals or clinics if we are not feeling well or if we have certain illnesses 4. Provide Careers o Organization also provide us with career opportunities. E. G.
Some of us works in banks, others in some other organizations. Those organizations provide individuals a place to go for work & earn salary every month. 3. O Planning organizing Communication Leading GOALS Controlling Measuring Managerial Performance Performance can be measured by looking at 2 criteria 1. Performance efficiency (“doing right things”) 0 The ability to do the things right 0 An efficient manager is a manager who can achieve outputs/results as expected. Managers who are able to utilize & minimize the cost of resources such as staff, finance, equipment & raw materials. . Performance effectiveness (“doing the right things”) 0 The ability to choose the right goals 0 E. G.
If the demand in the market for cars are small, compact & economical cars, but the manager chooses to produce & manufacture big, luxury & expensive cars, the manager is considered to be ineffective. Performance effectiveness & Performance efficiency as foundations for productivity Success High Effective and efficient. Goals are achieve & resources are well utilized, area of high productivity B D Goals Attainment (achieve/not) -Effectiveness Effective but not efficient. Some resources are wasted. A C Neither effective nor efficient, Efficient but not effective. No goals are not achieved, resources wasted resources , but goals not wasted in the process achieved Low Poor Resources Utilization (wasted/not) -Efficiency 2 The Management Process 0 Management is a process that contains several functions.
It comprises of the Managerial Levels 0 There are 3 levels of management : stateless AT Planning, organizing, Leaning & controlling (POOL) Includes annealing goals, establishing strategy & developing plans to coordinate activities levels of management Planning Organizing Leading Controlling Top managers Middle managers First-line managers/ Lower level manager Non- managerial personnel Establish objective, policy & strategy, make long-term decisions. E. G. CEO , President Interpret top management directives into operating plans, make implementation decision. E. G. Marketing Manager, H. R. Manager Direct & support work on non- managerial personnel , make short-term operating decision. E. G. Clerk. Ђ Determine what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the task are to be roped, who reports to whom & where decisions are to be made. Includes motivating subordinates, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels & resolving conflicts Monitoring activities to ensure that they are being accomplished as planned & correcting any significant deviations LEADS TO ACHIEVING THE ORGANIZATION’S STATED PURPOSE (GOALS/MISSIONS) Perform variety of task activities, using technical skills. E. G. Driver. Type of managers Manager By their level in the organization Top Mangers Responsible for a single area of activity. E. G.
Finance Manager, Marketing Manager By the range of organization activities they are responsible Functional Mangers Managerial Skills 0 There are 3 basic skills required by managers : Middle Managers General Mangers First-line Managers Responsible for more complex units that include many functional areas of activity. E. G. Plant Manager Technical skills (T) Ability to use the procedures, techniques & knowledge of a specialized field. E. G. Accountant, a heart surgeon, & a civil engineer has a special knowledge relating to the specialize field. Human Skills (H) Is a SKI Tanat gives a manager teen tidally to work effectively Walt other people.
It includes the ability to motivate, understand, lead & communicate, which a manager needs throughout his work. Conceptual skills (C) They are mental capabilities that help managers see the whole enterprise as well as the relationships that exist among the various parts in the organization. This skill gives the manager the ability to coordinate & integrate the organization’s interests and activities.