Geology Study Guide Essay

Choose the one option that best completes the statement or answers the inquiry.

1 ) What are the basic differences between the subjects of physical and historical geology? |1 ) |

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A ) physical geology is the survey of dodos and sequences of stone strata ; historical geology is the survey of how stones and minerals were used in the yesteryear

B ) physical geology involves the survey of stone strata. dodos. and deposition in relation to plate motions in the geologic yesteryear ; historical geology charts how and where the home bases were traveling in the yesteryear

C ) historical geology involves the survey of stone strata. dodos. and geologic events. using the geologic clip graduated table as a mention ; physical geology includes the survey of how stones form and of how erosion shapes the land surface

D ) none of the above – physical geology and historical geology are basically the same

2 ) |________ was the extremely influential. ancient Grecian philosopher noted for his Hagiographas and teachings|2 ) | |on natural doctrine and on the workings of Earth. ||||
|A ) Pappagapolis|B ) Aristotle|C ) Nero|D ) Odysseus||
3 ) |Compared to the age of Earth accepted as right today. how did 17th and eighteenth century proponents|3 ) | |of catastrophism envision the Earth’s age? ||||
A )

They believed it to be about the same as current estimations. give or take a few million old ages. B ) They believed Earth to be much younger than current estimations C ) They believed Earth to be much older than current
estimations D ) None of the above — they didn’t truly turn to the age of Earth

4 ) Which one of the undermentioned observations and illations is consistent with the thought of|4 ) | uniformitarianism? ||
A )

lava flows on the seafloor precipitated from saltwater
B ) sand turn overing along a watercourse underside shows that deposit is traveling downriver C ) break outing vents overlie firing. subterranean. coal beds D ) all of the above

5 ) |________ was an of import eighteenth century English geologist and advocate of uniformitarianism. |5 ) | |A ) Isaac Newton|B ) James Hutton|C ) Charles Lyell|D ) James Ussher|| 6 ) |The presently accepted age of Earth is ________ old ages. |||6 ) | |A ) 4. 6 billion|B ) 6. 4 million|C ) 6. 4 trillion|D ) 4. 6 thousand|| 7 ) |Which of the undermentioned best describes the cardinal construct of superposition? |7 ) | A )

older dodos in younger strata indicate a locally inverted geologic clip graduated table B ) any sedimentary sedimentation accumulates on older stone or deposit beds

C ) strata with dodos are by and large deposited on strata with no dodos

D ) older strata by and large are deposited on younger strata without step ining. intermediate age strata

8 ) |The ________ division of the geologic clip graduated table is an epoch of the Phanerozoic eon. |8 ) | |A ) Paleozoic|B ) Permian|C ) Proterozoic|D ) Paleocene||
9 ) |The ________ forms the comparatively cool. brickle home bases of home base tectonics. ||9 ) | |A ) asthenosphere|B ) eosphere|C ) astrosphere|D ) lithosphere||

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10 ) |A ________ is a well-tested and widely accepted position that best explains certain scientific|10 ) | |observations. |||||
|A ) generalization|B ) law|C ) hypothesis|D ) theory||
11 ) |All of the following are possible stairss of scientific probe except for ________ . |11 ) | A )

the development of one or more on the job hypotheses or theoretical accounts to explicate facts B ) development of observations and experiments to prove the hypotheses C ) premise of decisions without anterior experimentation or observation D ) the aggregation of scientific facts through observation and measuring

12 ) |________ stones form by crystallisation and consolidation of liquefied magma. ||12 ) | |A ) Indigenous|B ) Primary|C ) Igneous|D ) Sedimentary||
13 ) |________ stones ever originate at the surface of the solid Earth. ||13 ) | |A ) Secondary|B ) Sedimentary|C ) Metamorphic|D ) Igneous||
14 ) |During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. direct observations showed that a glacier|14 ) | |in Switzerland flowed frontward in the declivitous way while its neb ( end point ) was retreating|| |higher up the vale? Which of the undermentioned explains these observations in a rational. scientific|| |way? |||||

A )

ice chest temperatures meant slower frontward glacier flow ensuing in neb retreat B ) the glacial hypothesis was eventually accepted as a scientific theory

C ) the runing rate of ice in the glacier exceeded the rate at which new snow and ice were added to the glacier

D ) rocky dust in the vale downhill from the neb was deposited by Noah’s inundation

15 ) |In right order from the centre outward. Earth includes which units? ||15 ) | |A ) nucleus. crust. mantle. hydrosphere|B ) inner nucleus. outer nucleus.
mantle. crust|| |C ) inner nucleus. crust. mantle. hydrosphere|D ) nucleus. interior mantle. outer mantle. crust|| 16 ) |The ________ refers to the sum sum of all life on Earth. ||16 ) | |A ) biosphere|B ) atmosphere|C ) hydrosphere|D ) asthenosphere|| 17 ) |A ________ system is one in which energy moves freely in and out. but no affair enters or leaves|17 ) | |the system. |||||

|A ) equilibrated|B ) feedback|C ) closed|D ) open||
18 ) |________ is frequently paraphrased as “the nowadays is the key to the yesteryear. ”||18 ) | |A ) Aristotelian logic||B ) Biblical prophecy|||
|C ) Catastrophism||D ) Uniformitarianism|||
19 ) |________ . a popular natural doctrine of the 17th and early 18th centuries. was based on a firm|19 ) | |belief in a really short geologic history for Earth. ||||
|A ) Exoschism||B ) Uniformitarianism|||
|C ) Ecospherism||D ) Catastrophism|||
20 ) |The ________ proposes that the organic structures of our solar system formed at basically the same clip from|20 ) | |a revolving cloud of gases and dust. ||||
|A ) Big Band theory||B ) Heliocentric theory|||
|C ) Nebular hypothesis||D ) Plate Tectonics theory|||

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21 ) |The ________ is non a portion of the Earth’s physical environment. ||21 ) | |A ) solid Earth|B ) atmosphere|C ) hydrosphere|D ) astrosphere|| 22 ) |________ is the procedure by which stones breakdown in topographic point to bring forth dirts and deposits. |22 ) | |A ) Lithification|B ) Metamorphism|C ) Weathering|D ) Subduction|| 23 ) |Which one of the undermentioned statements is non right? |||23 ) | A )

magmas crystallize to organize pyrogenic stones
B ) sedimentary stones may endure to pyrogenic stones
C ) pyrogenic stones can undergo metamorphism
D ) metamorphic stones may run to magma

24 ) |The composing of the nucleus of Earth is thought to be ________ . ||24 ) | |A )
peridotite||B ) granite|||
|C ) basalt||D ) solid iron-nickel alloy|||
25 ) |The asthenosphere is really a portion of the ________ of the Earth. ||25 ) | |A ) mantle|B ) outer core|C ) inner core|D ) crust||
26 ) |The ________ is thought to be a liquid. metallic part in the Earth’s inside. ||26 ) | |A ) inner core|B ) lithosphere|C ) outer core|D ) mantle||
27 ) |The ________ is the thinnest bed of the Earth. |||27 ) |
|A ) mantle|B ) outer core|C ) inner core|D ) crust||
28 ) |All of the undermentioned provide grounds or hints to the composing of Earth’s interior except for|28 ) | |________ . |||||
A )

splinters of crustal and mantle stones now exposed at Earth’s surface B ) diamond-bearing stones
C ) comets
D ) meteorites

29 ) |The comparatively stable interior part of a continent is known as a ________ . |29 ) | |A ) shield|B ) craton|C ) belt|D ) platform|
30 ) |Active mountain belts are most likely to be found ________ . |30 ) | A )

along merely the eastern borders of continents

B ) scattered throughout continents
C ) along the borders of continents
D ) in the interior parts of continents

31 ) The Continental shelf is located ________ . |31 ) |
A )

between the Continental rise and the abyssal fields
B ) landward of the Continental incline
C ) between the Continental incline and Continental rise

D ) seaward of the Continental incline

32 ) The most outstanding characteristic on the ocean floor are the ________ . |32 ) | A ) deep-ocean trenches|B ) seamounts||
C ) oceanic ridges|D ) lava plateaus||

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33 ) In sedimentary stones. lithification includes ________ . 33 )

A ) crystallisation and coolingB ) cementation and enduring C ) compression and cementationD ) compression and transit

Short ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the inquiry.

Word Analysis. Analyze the words and/or phrases for each inquiry below and find the relationship among the bulk of words/phrases. Choose the option which does non suit the form.

34 ) a. hypothesis|b. theory|c. fact|d. observation|34 ) |
35 ) a. hydrosphere|b. biosphere|c. atmosphere|d. solid Earth|35 ) | 36 ) a. protosun|b. Oort cloud|c. protoplanets|d. meteorites|36 ) | 37 ) a. crust|b. mantle|c. lithosphere|d. core|37 ) |
38 ) a. mountain belt|b. shield|c. craton|d. stable platform|38 ) | 39 ) a. abyssal plain|b. seamount|c. pelagic ridge|d. Continental slope|39 ) | 40 ) a. pressure|b. foliation|c. hydrothermal fluids|d. melting|40 ) |

TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.

41 ) |Aristotle and other outstanding Grecian philosophers were the first 1s to advance the philosophy of|41 ) | |uniformitarianism. F||
42 ) |Internally. the Earth consists of spherical shells with different composings and densenesss. T|42 ) | 43 ) |The asthenosphere is a comparatively cool and stiff shell that overlies the geosphere. F|43 ) | 44 ) |The philosophy
of uniformitarianism implies that the current forces and processes determining the Earth|44 ) | |have been runing for a really long clip. T||

45 ) |The jurisprudence of superposition applies chiefly to sedimentary stones and lava flows. T|45 ) | 46 ) |The presently accepted age of Earth is about 4. 5 million old ages. F|46 ) | 47 ) |A scientific theory is a probationary or unseasoned account that is proposed to explicate scientific|47 ) | |observations. F||

48 ) |Oceans cover somewhat less than half of the Earth’s surface. F|48 ) | 49 ) |In an unfastened system both energy and affair flow into and out of the system. T|49 ) | 50 ) |According to the nebulous hypothesis. all of the organic structures in the universe evolved from a revolving cloud|50 ) | |of gases and dust about 5 billion old ages ago. F||

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51 ) The geosphere. asthenosphere. and mesosphere are all beds of Earth defined by their composing. T

52 ) Much of our mold of Earth’s interior comes from the survey of seismal or temblor moving ridges. Thymine

53 ) Continental shields and stable platforms are portion of the interior part known as a craton. T

54 ) Harmonizing to the stone rhythm. any type of stone ( pyrogenic. sedimentary. or metamorphous ) may be transformed into another type of stone. given adequate clip. T

55 ) Igneous stones are produced mostly by the deposition and consolidation of surface stuffs like sand and clay. F

Short ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the inquiry.

56 ) |List the two. wide. traditional capable countries of geologic survey. Physical. Historical|56 ) | 57 ) |The statement “the nowadays is the key to the yesteryear. ” describes what basic geologic construct or|57 ) | |doctrine? Uniformitarianism||

58 ) |The ________ provinces that fossil beings win one another in a definite and|58 ) | |determinable order. Principle of fossil succession||
59 ) |In natural systems. mechanisms that drive or heighten alteration are called…Positive feedback|59 ) | 60 ) |The thin. outer bed of Earth. from 7 to 40 kilometers in thickness. is called the Crust|60 ) | 61 ) |The ________ is the comparatively stiff zone above the asthenosphere that includes the crust|61 ) | |and upper mantle. Lithosphere||

62 ) |The ________ is the solid. bouldery shell between the crust and outer nucleus. Mantle|62 ) | 63 ) |The convective flow of liquid. metallic Fe in the ________ is thought to bring forth Earth’s|63 ) | |magnetic field. Outer core||

64 ) |Moving from the shoreline towards the deep-ocean basin. the Continental border may|64 ) | |include the Continental shelf________ . _slope_______ . and the ___rise_____ . || 65 ) |What type of stone comprises most of the open surface of Earth ( approximately 75 % ) ? Sedimentary| 65 ) |

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one option that best completes the statement
or answers the inquiry.

66 ) Which of the undermentioned best defines a mineral and a stone? |66 ) |

A ) a mineral consists of its component atoms arranged in a geometrically insistent construction ; in a stone. the atoms are indiscriminately bonded without any geometric form

B ) a stone consists of atoms bonded in a regular. geometrically predictable agreement ; a mineral is a amalgamate sum of different stone atoms

C ) in a mineral the component atoms are bonded in a regular. repetitive. internal construction ; a stone is a lithified or amalgamate sum of different mineral grains

D ) a stone has an orderly. insistent. geometrical. internal agreement of minerals ; a mineral is a lithified or amalgamate sum of stones

67 ) |Which of the followers is non a cardinal atom found in atoms? ||67 ) | |A ) neutron|B ) protons|C ) electron|D ) selectron||
68 ) |Atoms of the same component. Zn for illustration. have the same figure of ________ . |68 ) | |A ) negatrons in the valency bond level|B ) negatrons in the nucleus|| |C ) protons in the nucleus||D ) neutrons in the outer atomic shell|| 69 ) |Which of the followers is an accurate description of ionic bonding? ||69 ) |

A ) karyon of adhering atoms exchange negatrons ; the resulting ions are bonded together by the attractive forces between the negative and positive nucleons

B ) atoms of different elements. holding gained or lost negatrons. organize negative and positive ions that are bonded together by attractive forces between ions with opposite charges

C ) atoms of two different elements portion negatrons and protons ; the ensuing compound is bonded together by the strong. adhering energy of shared protons

D ) karyon of two different atoms portion negatrons. and the ensuing compound is tightly bonded by the really strong. induced. electronuclear bonds

70 ) Which of the followers is right for isotopes of the same component? |70 ) | A )

the atoms have different Numberss of neutrons and the same figure of protons B ) the atoms have different Numberss of negatrons but the same figure of neutrons C ) the atoms have the same figure of negatrons and different Numberss of protons D ) the atoms have different Numberss of protons and the same figure of neutrons

71 ) |What mineral is the hardest known substance in nature? ||71 ) | |A ) muscovite|B ) silicate|C ) diamond|D ) indigen gold||
72 ) |Which carbonate mineral reacts readily with cool. thin hydrochloric acid to bring forth visible|72 ) | |bubbles of C dioxide gas? ||||
|A ) calcite|B ) dolomite|C ) quartz|D ) plagioclase||
73 ) |Which mineral is composed of Si dioxide ( Si02 ) ? |||73 ) | |A ) diamond|B ) quartz|C ) olivine|D ) calcite||
74 ) |Which of the undermentioned minerals is a silicate? |||74 ) |
|A ) calcite|B ) halite|C ) hematite|D ) muscovite||

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75 ) |A three-dimensional centimetre of vitreous silica. olivine. and gilded weigh 2. 5. 3. 0. and 19. 8 gms severally. This|75 ) | |indicates that ________ . |||||
|A ) gold is 6 to 7 times harder than olivine and quartz|||
|B ) gold has a higher denseness and specific gravitation than vitreous silica and olivine||| |C ) olivine and vitreous silica pulverizations are harder than metallic gold||| |D ) gold and olivine are silicates. vitreous silica is elemental silicon||| 76 ) |Which one of the followers is a Na and Ca felspar with duplicating striations? |76 ) |
|A ) microcline|B ) orthoclase|C ) plagioclase|D ) sanidine||

77 ) |Which of the undermentioned minerals is a ferromagnesian silicate? ||77 ) | |A ) muscovite|B ) quartz|C ) hornblende|D ) orthoclase||
78 ) |Which of the undermentioned minerals is in the mineral group known as isinglass? ||78 ) | |A ) augite|B ) muscovite|C ) olivine|D ) orthoclase||
79 ) |Which of the undermentioned best characterizes ferromagnesian silicates? ||79 ) | A )

they contain magnetite and ferroite and they are clear to light green B ) they are largely clear. colorless. and rich in the elements Mg and ferrium C ) they are black to greenish. silicate minerals incorporating Fe and Mg D ) they contain Fe and magnetic iron-ore. are black in colour. and they have metallic lustres

80 ) |Which one of the undermentioned mineral groups exhibits a sheet-like silicate construction? |80 ) | |A ) clays|B ) feldspars|C ) carbonates|D ) pyroxenes||
81 ) |Which one of the followers is a typical merchandise of enduring? ||81 ) | |A ) clays||B ) feldspars|||
|C ) micasmicas||D ) ferromagnesians|||
82 ) |The ion at the centre of a silicate tetrahedron is surrounded by ________ . ||82 ) | |A ) 4 O ions|B ) 4 Na ions|C ) 6 O ions|D ) 6 Na ions|| 83 ) |Which one of the undermentioned describes a mineral’s response to mechanical impact? |83 ) | |A ) crystal form|B ) luster|C ) streak|D ) cleavage||

84 ) |Chrysotile. crocidolite. and amosite are different mineralogical signifiers of what industrial|84 ) | |commodity? |||||
|A ) Portland cement||B ) gemstones|||
|C ) asbestos||D ) metallic sulphide ores|||
85 ) |Which of the undermentioned diseases has been linked straight to drawn-out inspiration of asbestos dust? |85 ) | |A ) diabetes||B ) lung cancer|||
|C ) glaucoma||D ) muscular dystrophy|||
86 ) |Which of the followers is the unit of weight used for mensurating diamonds ( about 0. 2 gms ) ? |86 ) | |A ) carat|B ) Troy ounce|C ) kilo|D ) point||
87 ) |Which of the undermentioned denotes the pureness of gold used in jewellery? ||87 ) |
|A ) carette|B ) carlot|C ) carnot|D ) karat||

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88 ) |Ruby and sapphire are ruddy and bluish signifiers of the mineral ________ . ||88 ) | |A ) diamond|B ) corundum|C ) emerald|D ) turquoise||
89 ) |All silicate minerals contain which two elements? |||89 ) | |A ) Fe. silicon|B ) Si. oxygen|C ) O. carbon|D ) Si. sodium|| 90 ) |Which mineral is easy soluble in H2O at room temperature conditions? ||90 ) | |A ) halite|B ) diamond|C ) talc|D ) olivine||

91 ) |What component is the most abundant in the Earth’s crust by weight? ||91 ) | |A ) chlorine|B ) carbon|C ) oxygen|D ) sodium||
92 ) |The strong inclination of certain minerals to interrupt along smooth. parallel planes is known as|92 ) | |________ . |||||
|A ) checking luster|B ) cleavage|C ) crystal form|D ) streak||
93 ) |What in the name given to an atom that additions or loses negatrons in a chemical reaction? |93 ) | |A ) isotope|B ) ion|C ) molecule|D ) nucleon||
94 ) |An atom’s mass figure is 13 and its atomic figure is 6. How many neutrons are in its karyon? |94 ) | |A ) 13|B ) 7|C ) 6|D ) 19||
95 ) |Which one of the followers is non true for minerals? |||95 ) | A )

they have a particular. predictable chemical composing
B ) they have a particular. internal. crystalline construction
C ) they can be a liquid. solid. or glass
D ) they can be identified by characteristic physical belongingss

96 ) |In which type of chemical bonding are negatrons shared between next atoms? |96 ) | |A ) isotopic|B ) subatomic|C ) covalent|D ) ionic||
97 ) |How do the negatrons behave in a mineral with metallic adhering? ||97 ) | A )

they are tightly bound to certain atoms and can non readily travel B ) they move to next negative ions. organizing positive ions C ) they react with protons to do neutrons in the outer valency shells D ) they can travel comparatively easy from atom to atom inside the mineral

98 ) |Which group of minerals are the most abundant in the Earth’s crust? |98 ) | |A ) chlorides|B ) silicates|C ) carbonates|D ) sulfides|
99 ) |Which the undermentioned denotes the monolithic. positively charged. atomic atoms? |99 ) | |A ) neutrons|B ) protons|C ) isotrons|D ) electrons|
100 ) |What are the lightest or least monolithic of the basic atomic atoms? |100 ) | |A ) electrons|B ) U nuclei|C ) protons|D ) neutrons|
101 ) |Which of the followers has the highest specific gravitation? |101 ) | |A ) gold|B ) quartz|C ) wood|D ) water|

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102 ) |Which of the followers will respond readily with acids such as hydrochloric? ||102 ) | |A ) calcite|B ) diamond|C ) talc|D ) quartz||
103 ) |Which of the undermentioned describes the light reflecting and transmittal features of a mineral? |103 ) | |A ) fluorescence||B ) practical absorption|||
|C ) colour streak||D ) luster|||
104 ) |What is the name of dark-coloured isinglass? |||104 ) |
|A ) biotite|B ) quartz|C ) calcite|D ) olivine||
105 ) |Hornblende and the other amphiboles have what type of silicate construction? ||105 ) | |A ) sheet||B ) two-base hit chains|||
|C ) 3-D framework||D ) metallic|||

Short ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the inquiry.

Word Analysis. Analyze the words and/or phrases for each inquiry below and find the relationship among the bulk of words/phrases. Choose the option which does non suit the form.

106 ) a. electron|b. atom|c. proton|d. neutron|106 ) |
107 ) a. hardness|b. streak|c. luster|d. cleavage|107 ) |
108 ) a. quartz|b. olivine|c. feldspar|d. calcite|108 ) |
109 ) a. olivine|b. quartz|c. amphibole|d. pyroxene|109 ) |
110 ) a. galena|b. calcite|c. gypsum|d. halite|110 ) |

TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.

111 ) Calcite and dolomite are both carbonate minerals. Thymine

112 ) Graphite and diamond have the same chemical composings and different crystalline constructions. T

113 ) Rocks are sums of one or more minerals. Thymine

114 ) Mineral lustre is loosely classified as either being metallic or opaque. F

115 ) Electrically impersonal atoms have equal Numberss of negatrons and protons. Thymine

116 ) Rock-forming silicate minerals have higher specific gravitations than H2O. Thymine

117 ) In a silicon-oxygen structural unit. Si atoms occupy corners of a tetrahedron. F

118 ) Calcite and halite react with dilute acids to germinate C dioxide. F

119 ) All atoms of the same component have the same atomic figure. F

120 ) Orthoclase and oligoclase felspars have rather different signifiers of cleavage. F

121 ) Diamond and vitreous silica are both minerals composed of a individual component. F

122 ) The isinglass. biotite and muscovite. both exhibit one way of cleavage. T

123 ) Nonmetallic minerals like vitreous silica and gypsum have no industrial utilizations. F

124 ) Ferromagnesian silicate minerals contain some Mg and/or Fe. T

125 ) Positive ions are atoms that have gained negatrons during a chemical reaction. F

126 ) Isotopes of the same component have the same mass figure. F

Short ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the inquiry.

127 ) |Moh’s hardness graduated table is a comparative step of which physical belongings of minerals? Hardness|127 ) | 128 ) |What physical belongings denotes the colour of a
powdered mineral? Streak|128 ) | 129 ) |The physical belongings denoting a mineral’s inclination to check along parallel. planar|129 ) | |surfaces is known as what? Cleavage||

130 ) |What is the difficult mineral known? Diamond|130 ) |
131 ) |What is the chemical composing of black lead and diamond? Carbon|131 ) | 132 ) |In atoms. which negatrons are involved in chemical bonding? The valency electrons/outer shell|132 ) | 133 ) |A compound is a stable chemical substance composed of two or more what? Elements|133 ) | 134 ) |What is the dominant signifier of chemical bonding exhibited by minerals such as native gold. |134 ) | |native Cu and copper-rich sulphides? Metallic||

135 ) |What two major features differentiate minerals from natural spectacless? extremely syrupy ; cools quickly|135 ) | 136 ) |Most spectacless and some minerals exhibit a type of break characterized by nested and|136 ) | |curved. cleft surfaces. What term describes this belongings? conchoidal fracture|| 137 ) |Parallel. heterosexual. additive imperfectnesss seeable on the cleavage surfaces of plagioclase|137 ) | |feldspar are called what? Striations||

138 ) |What is the smallest atom of affair that exhibits and defines the typical chemical|138 ) | |characteristics of the single elements? Atoms||
139 ) |What ferromagnesian silicate mineral is named for its green colour? Olivine|139 ) |

140 ) What mineral group signifiers by the dislocation and weathering of rock-forming silicate|140 ) | minerals and are of import components of dirts? Clay||

ESSAY. Write your reply in the infinite provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

141 ) Label the assorted parts of an atom in the diagram below.

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