Developmental psychological science is a field that surveies the different phases of development of human psychological science. There are many different theoretical accounts of development – theory of cognitive development by Jean Piaget. psychosexual phases of Sigmund Freud. phases of self-importance development by Jane Loevinger. theoretical account of hierarchal complexness by Michael Commons. phases of religion development by James W. Fowler. phases of psychosocial development by Erik Erikson. phases of moral development by Lawrence Kohlberg. hierarchy of demands by Abraham Maslow. etc.
Erik Erikson formulated the phases of psychosocial development as an extension of Freud’s phases of psychosexual development. Erikson proposed eight phases of normal human development:
- Young maturity
- Middle maturity
- Late maturity
The primary struggle in babyhood or unwritten centripetal age ( birth to 12-18 months ) is between trust and misgiving. In the yearling or muscular anal age ( 18 months to 3 old ages ) phase. there is a struggle between liberty and shame ; inaugural and guilt in the pre-school or locomotor ( 3 to 6 old ages ) phase ; industry and lower status in the school latency ( 6 to 12 old ages ) age ; individuality and function confusion in the adolescence ( 12 to 18 old ages ) phase ; familiarity and isolation during immature maturity ( 19 to 40 old ages ) ; generativity and stagnancy in in-between maturity ( 40 to 65 old ages ) ; and ego unity and desperation in late maturity ( 65 to decease ) .
In the first phase a babe is wholly dependent on its parents and it is up to the parents to develop a relationship of trust between the kid and themselves. Such a kid will turn up to be a more unafraid single. During the 2nd phase kids grain more personal control over their lives such as taking things for themselves. toilet preparation and inquiring for what they want. Play is an of import constituent of the 3rd phase. During the 4th phase kids develop sense of achievement and pride.
In the stripling phase kids are larning to be independent and they attempt to derive a sense of ‘self’ . In the 6th and the 7th phases people explore relationships through household. friends and calling. The last phase is one retrospection and contemplation. The cardinal component of the psychosocial theory of Erik Erikson is that of self-importance individuality. This individuality develops bit by bit through societal interactions. All the struggles in the different phases of life lead to what is besides known as ego quality or self-importance strength.
While Erik Erikson developed the theoretical account of Sigmund Frued. Lawrence Kohlberg extended the theory of cognitive development of Jean Piaget. In Kohlberg’s theoretical account there are three degrees of moral development – pre-conventional. conventional and post-conventional. Obedience. penalty and opportunism are the chief preoccupations in the pre-conventional degree.
The cardinal inquiries at this degree are. “How to avoid penalty? ” and “What do I acquire from this? ” Social norms and conformation to authorization are the chief concerns of the conventional phase. At this degree people aspire to carry through societal functions. Peoples are driven by blessing and/or disapproval of the group that belong to. It becomes of import for them to follow regulations and conform to pronouncements and Torahs. Bing accepted by the group is the most of import concern during this degree. Universal Torahs and moralss are more of import than group-based Torahs and moralss in the post-conventional phase. This phase is otherwise known as the principled degree.
At this phase Torahs are non considered to be stiff or irrevokable. They are thought to be societal contracts that entail varied positions and sentiments. The keywords of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development are – obeisance. opportunism. conformance. jurisprudence and order. human rights and cosmopolitan human moralss.
The mental phases of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development are designed to run into certain standards:
- On a qualitative degree. they are different ways of thought.
- They are structured wholes.
- The advancement of the phases is an invariant sequence.
- They are hierarchal.
- They are cosmopolitan across civilizations.
Kohlberg uses these phases to explicate other cognitive signifiers. peculiarly the ability to take functions. In the pre-conventional phase kids do non cognize that there are other point of views on every topic. They accept the point of view merely of the authorization figure. They recognize different sentiments and point of views in the 2nd phase but gravitate towards those positions that they themselves hold. People become concerned with the feelings of others during the 3rd and 4th phases. During the last two phases their worldview expands to include people from other communities and groups. They can place with the sentiments and feelings of ‘other’ people because no jurisprudence considered absolute and give. Law is a concept and a contract.
Kohlberg’s theory has been used in instruction to assist kids go active participants in their ain moral development. Children are encouraged to discourse and debate moral issues and range to decisions on their ain. One of the major unfavorable judgments of this theory lies with post-conventional phase. Critics have felt that it would be unsafe for people to put their single values over group values and would be riotous to communities. Carol Gilligan criticises the theory on the footing that it is wholly male oriented and the adult females have a different way of moral development. Male development emphasizes authorization while adult females emphasize association.
Erikson and Kohlberg have both provided of import theories that expand on the theories of their predecessors. Erikson’s theory emphasizes societal interactions while Kohlberg’s theory emphasises single thoughts and rights. Erikson’s self-importance individuality finds fruition in a life of societal interactions while Kohlberg’s ego individuality transcends itself and group individualities. The latter attributes merely normative value to Torahs and pronouncements.
Erikson. E. H. ( 1968 ) . Identity: Young person and Crisis. New York: Norton.
Erikson. E. H. ( 1963 ) . Childhood and Society. ( 2nd ed. ) . New York: Norton.
Carver. C. S. & A ; Scheir. M. F. ( 2000 ) . Positions on Personality. Needham Heights. Ma: Allyn & A ; Bacon.
Kohlberg. Lawrence ( 1981 ) . Essaies on Moral Development. Vol. I: The Philosophy of Moral Development. San Francisco. Calcium: Harper & A ; Row.