Bangladesh is a state located in South Asia. With the exclusion of a little part of land surrounding Burma in the E, Bangladesh is bordered by India on all sides. The state opens to the Bay of Bengal on the South. Bangladesh was a portion of the Bengal state of India in the early 1900s, until the eastern portion was partitioned in 1905, by the British raj. Although the state was once more reunited in 1911 the precedency of communal difference was set by the 1905 move. When India gained independency from British regulation in 1947 it was divided into Pakistan and Hindustan ( India ) . The modern twenty-four hours Bangladesh was portion of Pakistan from 1947 for 24 old ages until it gained independency in 1971 ( Ahsan, 2005 ) .
Bangladesh occupies a entire country of 143,998 square kilometres and a population of 156,050,883 ( CIA, 2010 ) . Bangladesh is one of the most heavy topographic points on Earth, with a population denseness of aˆ¦.. ( beginning ) . Its population growing rate is about 1.292 % ( CIA, 2010 ) . Bangladesh is a homogeneous state with 98 % of its population Bengali and 2 % include people from other tribal groups and Non-Bengali ( 1998 ) . The spiritual composing is as follows: Moslem 89.5 % , Hindu 9.6 % , other 0.9 % ( 2004 ) . Bangladesh comes 3rd, after Pakistan and Indonesia among states holding the largest Moslem population in the universe ( National Geographic ) . Poverty is widespread, and about half of all Bangladeshis live on less than $ 1 a twenty-four hours.
Rich soils output three rice harvests a twelvemonth, but major cyclones cause storm surges that knock into the delta, brushing people, farm animal, and harvests from the Lowlandss. In 1970 a cyclone killed more than 300,000 people along the seashore, and in 2007 Cyclone Sidr caused 1000s of deceases along with important harm to the state ‘s substructure. Monsoon rains besides cause frequent implosion therapy of Bangladesh ‘s Lowlandss. On norm, about tierce of the state inundations during the rainy season. Earthquakes, drouths, and landslides besides occur.
2. Status of Development Based on Measurements and Indexs of Development
The economic system of Bangladesh has averaged an one-year growing rate of 5-6 % since 1996. This growing rate has been achieved by Bangladesh by keeping macroeconomic stabilizing steps, market deregulating, fiscal deregulating ( World Bank ) despite confronting political convulsion, weak substructure, corruptness, and deficiency of energy ( CIA ) . Furthermore, the high rate of growing has besides been facilitated by the sound investing made towards increasing societal and human capital. Some cardinal statistics on human development are given in Table 1.
As can be derived from the tabular array, Bangladesh has made singular advancement in cardinal indexs such as infant mortality rates have reduced drastically by 70 % , the population growing rate have halved, and steps such as life anticipation at birth and female-male school registration ratio have improved.
The construction of the Bangladeshi economic system is preponderantly service oriented. The GDP portion of the service, industry, and agribusiness sectors are 52.5 % , 28.5 % , and 19 % severally. However agribusiness remains an of import sector for its economic system since approximately 45 % of Bangladeshis are employed in it. ( beginning: cia.gov ) . Agribusiness in Bangladesh is upwind dependent and effects of natural catastrophes can be straitening. The chief harvest of production is rice, which is besides a staple diet of Bangladesh.
Over 36.3 % of the population live below the poorness line ( definition in Bangladesh ) . Bangladesh has a gini coefficient of 33.2 as of 2005.
Harmonizing to Political Risk services, 63 % of the entire Bangladeshi labour force is involved in the agricultural sector ( 2008 ) . The unemployment statistics of Bangladesh is low that shades the job of under-employment in Bangladesh. Due to a low degree of accomplishments and productiveness that reduces its comparative advantage in industry of labour-intensive goodness due to its abundant supply of inexpensive labour.
3. Analysis of Development Problems and Policy Issues
Despite doing important advancement in bettering and prolonging a comparatively high growing rate and bettering the Numberss across the board for most human development indexs, Bangladesh still faces some critical jobs that needs to be addressed. We have identified four major jobs that Bangladesh needs to turn to in order to travel towards a sustainable economic development frame. The undermentioned four issues will be discussed:
I. Worsening Productivity in Agriculture
two. Skill Constraints and Quality Problems in Higher Education
four. aˆ¦aˆ¦ .
Worsening Productivity in Agriculture
Agribusiness is the most of import sector in Bangladesh, as more than 45 % of the population is employed in it ( cia.gov ) . The major harvests in Bangladesh are rice, wheat, and jute. Between 1981 and 2006, agribusiness had an mean growing rate of 2.9 % , which is higher than the rate of population growing. Due to investings in irrigation, distribution of better quality seeds and fertiliser, and proviso of inducements to husbandmans for domestic production, rice production has more than doubled ( World Bank 55 ) .
An addition in rice production, a staple diet of Bangladesh, and the acceptable growing of agribusiness end product in the last 20 old ages has made a important part to the nutrient security job in Bangladesh. However, due to a decreasing land base for agribusiness due to the increasing urbanisation, agribusiness productiveness will be missing in the coming old ages. The still increasing population and the diminishing land for cultivation due to the recent phenomenon of fleet urbanisation poses a job for the hereafter.
Although accent in rice production has alleviated the nutrient security job to some extent, there is still a deficiency of important variegation in the agribusiness sector. Due to the high growing rates enjoyed by Bangladesh, and the resulting urbanisation procedure, consumer gustatory sensations have changed to reflect more value added merchandises ( World Bank, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to the World Bank, “ consumers are now purchasing more high-value nutrients such as fish, meat, fruit, veggies, and processed merchandises ” ( 2008, xiii ) The market for dairy, meat, and other hard currency harvests have hence, increased. The increased variegation in agribusiness has the potency to better rural income for husbandmans, which can be utilized by them to put in human capital such as wellness and instruction.
Additionally, the turning planetary demand for high-value nutrients holds great promise for Bangladesh. During the early 2000s, when the planetary demand for seafood was 2nd merely to fruits and veggies, Bangladesh took advantage of this and became a competitory provider of seafood. Successs such as this can be replicated, but there are a figure of challenges that need to be addressed foremost. First, the issue of comparative advantage is really of import.
Skill restraints and low quality of third instruction
Every twelvemonth, the labour force in Bangladesh additions by approximately 2 million people. This is chiefly attributed to the demographic passage in that is doing more young persons come ining the labour market. The 2nd ground is due to a cultural passage whereby it is non uncommon to see more and more adult females come ining the labour force each twelvemonth, yet another factor in the lifting figure of people in the market. While it has been said the labour is “ Bangladesh ‘s most cherished resource ” , the unemployment rate in Bangladesh is 4.3 % . This rate is even higher for more educated labour force ( World Bank, 2007 ) .
without third instruction, among whom it is higher. The quality of vocational establishment is really low in Bangladesh. Normally the classs and preparation provided by the VET ( Vocational Education and Training ) does non run into the market demand. Additionally, the quality of third instruction is hapless and the degree of attainment to keep higher industry.