Children and Prejudice Essay

Abstraction Over the last century. research workers have been debating whether biass are inborn in kids. research workers so found that kids are in fact prejudiced. but argument arises about how they become prejudiced. Some surveies suggested that kids are born with being prejudiced and that it is unconditioned and natural. where as other surveies argue that bias behaviour are learnt socially off parents. household. equals and the societal environment in which they grew up in.

Theories have been devised to assist explicate the bias processes of kids by in-group and out-group behaviour ; there is the Developmental Intergroup Theory and the Social Identity Developmental theory. A new argument has been come uping about the lessening of bias at the age of seven and no lessening of bias. One Australian survey shows consistence with kids of American and Canada. but some surveies show no racial bias towards other races in kids. Children and Prejudice.

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Question of whether kids are prejudiced has long been debated. Past and recent researches have found that there are in fact bias inclinations in kids and that it can be present at the age of three to four old ages. but it is ill-defined how kids become prejudiced. Definition of bias harmonizing to Allport ( 1954 ) is that bias is “thinking ailment of others without sufficient warrant” ( As cited in Eagly. xxxx. p. 45 ) and harmonizing to Kosslyn and Rosenberg ( 2004 ) bias is “an attitude ( by and large negative ) toward members of a group” ( p. G-7 ) .

In the class of research on the bias of kids. there has been argument over the “relative function of knowledge versus environmental-learning factors…” ( Gutman & A ; Hickson. 1996. p. 448 ) . Several theories have tried to explicate the bias in kids. for illustration. the Developmental Intergroup Theory ( Bigler & A ; Liben. 1996 ) and the Social Identity Development Theory ( Nesdale. Durkin. Maass & A ; Griffiths. 2005 ) . Several steps have been used to mensurate racial attitudes of kids towards other races such as the Preschool Racial Attitudes Measure and the Multiresponse Racial Attitude step ( Aboud. 2003 ) .

Less so half a century ago. some societal theoreticians believed that bias are inborn in people and that it is built-in and natural. it was considered natural to non like people who differ physically and like people who are the similar to one ego ; but research in the last three decennaries they have discarded those theories. Research workers are now convinced that kids are prejudiced by larning it socially. kids observe. and are influenced by the “existence of forms in the civilization in which they live” ( Clark. 1955. p. 17 ) .

This being that. kids believed non to be born with inclinations to be prejudiced but learn it socially by how they live. Consistent with Clark. Bigler and Liben ( 2007 ) . believes that immature kids are frequently seen as being unaffected by the negative prejudices of grownups. but many surveies show that bias exist by the age of four old ages old. Allport ( 1958 ) states that kids start to detect physical features that mark a racial group rank.

Like researches above. findings of Kowalski’s ( 2003 ) research. they have found that kids every bit immature as kindergartners start to hold negative attitudes to other racial/out ‘ groups. they have a inclination to state positive statements about same race and negative statements about other races ( Aboud. 1987 ; Aboud & A ; Sherry. 1984. as cited in Kowalski. 2003 ) . Until rather late. there were differences of sentiment refering the age at which kids start to develop and show racial biass.

Harmonizing to a recent research of white kindergarten kids and Afro-american kids. they show a penchant for skin colour. These kids were asked a few inquiries and they showed a great consciousness of skin colour. this determination supports the thought that racial consciousness is present every bit immature as the age of three ( Clark. 1970 ) . Some kids every bit immature as three old ages if age begins to show Begin to show racial and spiritual attitudes similar to those held by grownups in their society.

The racial and spiritual attitudes of sixth-graders are hardly different from the attitudes of high-school pupils. There is general understanding that kids can be prejudiced. but what factors there is. is ill-defined. It is debated between environmental-learning and knowledge development. Research on knowledge development attempts explicating bias at different ages of cognitive development and the Environmental-learning explains that kids and favoritism is non rooted in the kid but it is learnt through a societal context.

Harmonizing to Allport ( 1988 ) . kids are prejudiced because kids “filter and falsify environmental input” . this means kids are prejudiced due to the deficiency of cognitive capacity at a certain age and that kids have immature ideas ( As cited in Gutman & A ; Hickson. 1996. p. 448 ) . From the Social/ Environmental Learning theory position. racial thoughts of kids are non concrete. more easy changed. than racial thoughts of grownups. It is likely ; excessively. that racial attitudes and behaviour are learnt off grownups.

The racial and spiritual attitudes of a immature kid may go more positive or more negative as he/she matures. harmonizing to the societal environment of the kid. The way these attitudes will take signifier of look. will be determined by the type of experiences that the kid has grown up in ( Clark. 1970 ) . In line with Clark ( 1970 ) . some research workers suggest that kids self identify with parents and larn off them ( Sinclair. Dun & A ; Lowery. 2004 ) .

Social Learning Theory argues that kids develop beliefs and behaviours by miming off an of import theoretical account in their life. normally household and equals ( Bandura. 1997. as cited in Sinclair. Dunn & A ; Lowery. 2004 ) . Likewise. fond regard theory suggests that kids internalize their parents’ outlooks. Sinclair et Al ( 2004 ) research provided grounds that parents’ racial attitudes does in fact influence both their children’s implicit and expressed racial bias. besides their consequences suggest that kids that identify with parents adopt the racial attitudes of their parents more on an implicit than expressed degree.

In fact parents’ inexplicit racial attitudes may hold a bigger influence on kids than their expressed racial attitudes because parents are incognizant of inexplicit prejudices. it is unconscious and hence. unable to consciously halt themselves from demoing prejudice attitudes. This research besides suggests that. parents’ racial attitudes may be peculiarly influential early in childhood. but equals and other signifier of societal environmental attitudes can act upon kids more as they get older. Some research workers suggest that the influence of environmental-learning factors. in add-on to cognitive factors. be given more serious research consideration.

This would intend. for illustration. taking into history the fact that on the footing of their differing exposure to group information. kids form different scheme ( cognitive constructions incorporating information about groups e. g. . Bem. 1981 ) . Harmonizing to Bergen ( ? ? ? ? ) household affects the development of bias in kids through mold. which kids observes and imitates of import function theoretical accounts. Children around seven to nine old ages of age can demo prejudice behaviour without a theoretical account. and where every bit younger kids do non understand regulations. there fore they look at grownup theoretical accounts ( Bergen. ? ? ? ? ) . besides when kids adopt their parents biass they emotionally emerge with their parents likes and disfavors.

Bergen ( ? ? ? ? ) concluded that a prejudiced kid goes through several phases. such as. fright of aliens. racial consciousness. designation with in-group. designation with parent’s emotion and entire rejections of out-group. and seen subsequently on this is similar to the Social Identity Developmental Theory phase’s.

Research workers believe that the Social Learning Theory is weakening ; research workers are now turning to the basic cognitive procedures of a child’s bias behaviour ( Aboud & A ; Sherry. 1984 ; Bigler & A ; Liben. 1993 ) . Besides. Bigler and Liben ( 2007 ) suggest that Social Learning theory does non explicate bias in kids. Social Learning Theory is saying that human behaviour is non unconditioned but learnt through important/ appropriate theoretical accounts ( Vaughan & A ; Hogg. 2008 ) . A group norm survey used the Social identity-developmental theory. which has four stages.

The first 1 is undifferentiated ( two to three old ages of age ) followed by cultural consciousness ( cultural consciousness Begins at three old ages old off labeling from parents ) . and so cultural penchant ( the kid learns that he or she is apart of a societal group ) and so cultural bias ( kids around the age of seven has crystallized attitudes towards certain races. but other research suggest that at this age bias lessenings ) ( Nesdale et Al. 2005 ; Nesdale. 2004 ) .

In this research. the findings were consistent with the Social Identity-Developmental Theory Children’s bias stages. they found that seven twelvemonth old prejudices of out-groups are different to those of a younger age and is more stable ; Nesdale et Al ( 2005 ) suggests that kids at this age should be a the concrete operational phase. which allows them to hold more stable thought and crystallized. Biass towards certain type of people are non known why. kids merely notice certain cues. for illustration. gender instead so a disabled individual.

Research indicates that immature kids tend to concentrate on perceptually outstanding features in a individual ( perceptional cues being race. gender. age & A ; attraction. etc ) . Children observe the features of physical visual aspect. They notice perceptual similarities and differences among those who live. work & A ; socialise together. They so gather the societal groups they observe which must hold been caused by meaningful differences between groups ( Bigler & A ; Liben. 2007 ) .

The new theoretical theoretical account by Bigler and Liben ( 2007 ) . called the Developmental Intergroup Theory ( DIT ) . attempts to set up this categorization skills in kids that affects pigeonholing. This theory is combined by two theories. first being the inter-group theory. which is societal designation within a group ( Tajfel & A ; Turner. 1986 ) and 2nd one being the Self-categorization Theory ( Turner. Hogg. Oakes. Reicher & A ; Wetherall. 1987 ) .

Their DIT theory proposes that saliency grouping additions in kids when grownups label groups or group members ( Bigler & A ; Liben. 2007 “Racial bias is a sensitivity to respond favourably to members of a racial group. because of their group affiliation” ( Aboud. 1988. p. 48 ) . The bulk of child racial bias surveies have all been researched on kids in North America.

As stated above one research suggests that children’s bias is crystallized at the age of seven and does non worsen but other research tends to propose it does. harmonizing to Gutman and Hickson ( 1996 ) both can go on because at that age kids have more developed mature head and that because of that it can look like it decreases because the kid has a crystallized construct of a group in their head.

Harmonizing to Katz ( 1975 ) the lessening go on due to societal desirability’s and that bias is non accepted and harmonizing to Aboud ( 1993 ) the diminution happens because of maturating cognitive development of the kid ( Augoustinos & A ; Rosewarne. 2001 ) . Ausgosustinos and Rosewarne ( 2001 ) consequences of their research indicated that like the consequences of North American surveies on kids. Euro-Australian kids in early old ages of in-between school start to demo less bias towards other groups than the younger kids did.

North American kids biass are similar to the kids in Australia. Consistent with Doyle and Aboud’s ( 1995 ) research on North American kids who showed less racial bias towards out-groups as they get older can besides be seen in Euro-Australian kids. they found that older Euro-Australian start to demo less racial bias towards Aborigines. but as seen subsequently other Australian surveies are non consistent with this determination ( As cited in Augoustinos & A ; Rosewarne. 2001 ) .

Some steps used to mensurate racial attitudes are the Preschool Racial Attitude Measure ( PRAM ) and the Multiresponse Racial Attitude ( MRA ) . these expression for racial attitudes and penchants in immature kids and besides to happen the in-group and out-group attitudes in kids. In Aboud’s ( 1988 ) happening that the MRA has deductions. it goes beyond in happening in-group and out-group consequences. it doesn’t separate the groups apart and that inquiries were to open ended and positively worded.

Another concern in this field of research is that. abroad research has chiefly found that at the age of seven prejudice diminutions. but some of the findings in Australian surveies have found non consistence of worsening bias at that age. Another job in Australian surveies is that some kids do non demo bias towards other races ( Augoustinos and Reynolds. 2001 ) ; this job could be farther looked in future surveies.

Overall. Aboud’s twenty old ages ( 1988 ) that kids are prejudiced and there is general understanding in other researches that kids can be prejudiced and that is can get down from an early age about three to five old ages. there is still a argument on whether there are cognitive developmental factors or societal learning factors ; modern-day research workers are get downing to seek and explicate kids and bias by utilizing cognitive developmental attacks. There has been argument over conditions bias diminutions at seven or are merely more inexplicit and repress because of societal undesirability of demoing prejudiced behaviour.

Measures used for researching child bias should be looked once more and besides farther surveies of kid biass over different states as most researches on kid bias are studied in America and Canada ; Possibly future surveies should look at England. Australia and some other multicultural states in Europe. References Aboud. F. E. ( 2003 ) . The formation of in-group favouritism and out-group bias in immature kids: Are they distinguishable attitudes? Developmental Psychology. 39. 48-60.

Augoustinos. M. . & A ; Reynolds. K. J. ( 2001 ) . The development of bias in kids. D. Garvey ( Eds. ) . Understanding bias. racism. and societal struggle ( pp. 57-73 ) . London: Sage publications. Augoustinos. M. . & A ; Rosewarne. D. L. ( 2001 ) . Stereotype cognition and bias in kids. British Journal of Developmental Psychology. 19. 143-156. Bergen. T. J. ( 2001 ) . The Development of Prejudice in Children. Education. 122. 154-163. Bigler. R. S. . & A ; Liben. L. S. ( 2007 ) Developmental Intergroup Theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science. 16. 132-166. Clark. K. B. ( 1970 ) . The job of Prejudice. Prejudice and your Child. ( pp. 17-24 ) . Boston: Beacon Press. Eagly. A. H. ( in imperativeness ) .

Bias: Toward a more inclusive apprehension. In A. H. Eagly. R. M. Baron. & A ; V. L. Hamilton ( Eds. ) . The societal psychological science of group individuality and societal struggle: Theory. application. and pattern. Washington. DC: APA Books. Gutman. D. B. . & A ; Hickson. F. ( 1996 ) . The relationship between racial attitudes and social-cognitive development in kids: An Australian survey. Developmental Psychology. 12. 448-456. Kosslyn. S. M. . & A ; Rosenberg. R. S. ( 2004 ) . Psychology ( pp. G-7 ) . Sydney: Pearson. Kowalski. K. ( 2003 ) . The Emergence of Ethnic and Racial Attitudes in Preschool-Aged Children. The Journal of Social Psychology. 143. 677-690.

Nesdale. A. R. ( 2004 ) Development of Prejudice in Children. In M. Augoustinos & A ; K. Reynolds ( Eds ) . The Psychology of Prejudice and Racism ( pp. 1-12 ) . Sage Nesdale. D. . Durkin. K. . Maass. A. . & A ; Griffiths. J. ( 2005 ) . Group Norm. Threat. and Children’s Racial Prejudice. Child Development. 76. 652-663. Sinclair. S. . Dunn. E. . & A ; Lowery. B. S. ( 2005 ) . The relationship between parental racial attitudes and children’s inexplicit bias. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 41. 283-289. Vaughan. G. M. . & A ; Hogg. M. A. ( 2008 ) . Aggression. Introduction to Social Psychology ( pp. 452-453 ) . Australia: Pearson.