• To understand attitudes. their constituents and how they affect our behaviors • Compare and contrast the major occupation attitudes. • Define occupation satisfaction and demo how it can be measured. • Sum up the chief causes of occupation satisfaction.
Attitudes are appraising statements- either favorable or unfavourable- about objects. people or events. Jung’s definition of attitude is a “readiness of the mind to move or respond in a certain way” ( Jung. [ 1921 ] Most attitudes are the consequence of either direct experience or experimental acquisition from the environment.
Chiefly there are 3 constituents of Attitudes-Cognitive
The emotional or experiencing section of an attitude
The sentiment or belief section of an attitude
An purpose to act in a certain manner toward person or something
? The most powerful moderators of the attitude-behavior
? Importance of the attitude-reflects cardinal values.
self involvement or designation with groups or persons have strong relation with behaviour ? Correspondence to behavior- closer the attitude and behavior. stronger the relationship ? Accessibility- the more we talk. the more we remember and more its consequence on behavior
? Existence of societal pressures- in agreement with the attitude facilitates look and frailty versa ? Personal and direct experience of the attitude.
? Leon Festinger ( 1957 )
– No. the contrary is sometimes true! ? Cognitive Disagreement: Any mutual exclusiveness between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes ? Persons seek to cut down this uncomfortable spread. or disagreement. to make stableness and consistence
? The stronger the disagreement. the greater the impulse to cut down it or actively avoid state of affairss and information that create consciousness of disagreement bing
Wayss to cut down disagreement
– Consistency is achieved ? by altering the attitude doing disagreement ? modifying or altering the behaviours. ? or through rationalisation
Desire to cut down disagreement depends on:
Importance of elements making disagreement
Degree of single influence over elements Wagess involved in disagreement
Predicting Behavior from Attitudes
? Closer the lucifer between attitude & A ; behaviour. stronger the relationship: ? Specific attitudes predict specific behaviour ? General attitudes predict general behaviour ? More often expressed an attitude. better forecaster it is. ? High societal force per unit areas cut down the relationship and may do disagreement. ? Attitudes based on personal experience are stronger forecasters.
What are the Major Job Attitudes?
? Job Satisfaction ? A positive feeling about the occupation ensuing from an rating of its features ? Job Involvement ? Degree of psychological designation with the occupation where perceived public presentation is of import to self-worth
? Belief in the grade of influence over the occupation. competency. occupation meaningfulness. and liberty
Another Major Job Attitude
? Organizational Committedness
? Identifying with a peculiar organisation and its ends. while wishing to keep rank in the organisation. ? Three dimensions: ? Affective – emotional fond regard to organisation and belief in its values ? Continuance Commitment – economic value of remaining ? Normative – moral or ethical duties ? Has some relation to public presentation. particularly for new employees.
More Major Job Attitudes…
? Perceived Organizational Support ( POS ) ? Degree to which employees believe the organisation values their part and attentions about their wellbeing. ? Higher when wagess are just. employees are involved in decision-making. and supervisors are seen as supportive. ? High POS is related to higher OCBs and public presentation. ? Employee Engagement ? The grade of engagement with. satisfaction with. and enthusiasm for the occupation. ? Engaged employees are passionate about their work and company.
? a enjoyable emotional province ensuing from the assessment of one’s occupation ; an affectional reaction to one’s occupation ; and an attitude towards one’s occupation. ? involves a complex single summing up of a figure of distinct occupation elements. ? How to mensurate? ? Single planetary evaluation ( one question/one reply ) Best ? Summation of occupation aspects score ( many questions/one norm ) – standardized graduated table
Models of Job Satisfaction
? Affect Theory- Edwin A. Locke’s ( 1976 ) -satisfaction is determined by a disagreement between what one wants in a occupation and what one has in a occupation. – how much one values a given aspect of work ( e. g. the grade of liberty in a place ) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when outlooks are/aren’t met ? Dispositional Model- Job Satisfaction is a comparatively stable temperament of an single -some persons are likely to be systematically either dissatisfied or satisfied with their occupations
Causes of Job Satisfaction
? Pay influences occupation satisfaction merely to a point. ? After about $ 40. 000 a twelvemonth ( in the U. S. ) . there is no relationship between sum of wage and occupation satisfaction. ? Money may convey felicity. but non needfully occupation satisfaction. ? Personality can act upon occupation satisfaction. ? Negative people are normally non satisfied with their occupations. ? Those with positive nucleus self-evaluation are more satisfied with their occupations.
Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction
Exit • Behavior directed toward go forthing the organisation Voice • Active and constructive efforts to better conditions
Neglect • Allowing conditions to decline Loyalty • Passively waiting for conditions to better
Results of Job Satisfaction
? Job Performance ? Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! ? Organizational Citizenship Behaviors ? Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptual experiences of equity. ? Customer Satisfaction ? Satisfied frontline employees increase client satisfaction and trueness. ? Absenteeism ? Satisfied employees are reasonably less likely to lose work.
More Results of Job Satisfaction
? Employee turnover
? Satisfied employees are less likely to discontinue.
? Many chairing variables in this relationship.
Economic environment and term of office ? Workplace Deviance ? Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionise. maltreatment substances. bargain. and withdraw.
? Directors should watch employee attitudes: ? They give warnings of possible jobs ? They influence behavior ? Directors should seek to increase occupation satisfaction and bring forth positive occupation attitudes
? Reduces costs by take downing turnover. absenteeism. tardiness. larceny. and increasing OCB
? Focus on the intrinsic parts of the occupation: brand work challenging and interesting