Atm Versus Ip for Voice over Ip Sample Essay

Abstraction
In this paper we chiefly discuss about the engineerings called asynchronous transportation manner ( ATM ) and internet protocol ( IP ) . These are the two engineerings that are holding their ain importance in today’s communicating universe of conveying the voice and picture signals over a web between a beginning and finish. We are about to see the chief differences between these engineerings and compare them theoretically and practically. An advanced package called OPNET modeller is used in comparing these two engineerings for different parametric quantities such as traffic issues. Line uping holds. quality of service ( QOS ) . congestion. clip of response etc. .

Introduction
‘’NETWORK’’ this is the word that is good known by every person of this coevals as it has become their portion of life right from the start of their twenty-four hours till it ends. After the evolving of cyberspace there are many applications that came in to the being bring forthing different consequences in different applications where they are used and made the communicating expression easier from one portion of the Earth to the other. In any of the web topology the peculiar seller will look for quality of service ( QOS ) . cut downing the congestion. etc. . When covering with voice and picture transmittal. there are peculiarly two engineerings called asynchronous transmittal manner ( ATM ) and internet protocol ( IP ) . depending on the demand of the sellers. These two engineerings have their ain importance and are applicable in existent clip applications.

The foremost difference between these two engineerings is that ATM engineering depends on exchanging where as IP engineering follows the routing method. Other than these two engineerings there is other engineering known as MPLS. This is known as the advanced version of the ATM. MPLS stands for multi protocol label shift and the map of the MPLS is to exchange between the traffic and routers. This will assist in velocity. scalability and quality of service ( QOS ) . the chief jobs that are faced in today’s communicating universe. This is non discussed in our paper. A elaborate analysis on ATM and IP for different parametric quantities is discussed and a comparing is done between these two engineerings utilizing OPNET modeller. In the following subdivision we will hold brief description about the asynchronous transportation manner and cyberspace protocol. ASYNCHRONOUS TRANSFER MODE

Asynchronous Transfer Mode ( ATM ) is a engineering that is required in reassigning the information in footings of cells or packages that are of a fixed size. The size of the cell that are used with the ATM engineering are little when compared with the bearers that are used with the other engineerings. The map of the ATM is to convey picture. Audio and informations belong to computing machine to the other computing machine over the same web. While conveying the information from the beginning to the finish ATM creates fixed channel or path between them for the transportation of the information. This type of conveying the information is wholly different from TCP/IP in which the message is divided into packages that take different paths from the beginning to the finish.

Figure shows ATM web
There are three other footings that are to be discussed while holding a brief description of ATM. They are
* Transfer manner
* Cell based transportation and
* Asynchronous transportation.
Transportation manner
ATM has characteristics such that it is every bit velocity as circuit shift and besides more flexible as package shift. The transportation manner in ATM is neither circuit exchanging nor packet shift. It adapts both the transportation manners and the chief ground for this is it uses cells which are little sized frames. Cell based transportation





The ATM cell consists of fixed size frames and each frame consists of 53 bytes of informations of them 5 bytes are dedicated to transport the heading information and the staying 48 bytes are to transport the information informations. Each cell in the ATM is identified utilizing practical channel identifier ( VCI ) or practical way identifier ( VPI ) . ATM defines two different cell formats. They are UNI ( user-network intervention ) cell format and NNI ( network-network intervention ) cell format. But most of the sellers prefer to hold UNI cell format. Asynchronous manner

It is defined as the reoccurrence of cells which contains the information that is non-periodic.

The ATM protocol is developed on the criterions based by ITU. The map of the ATM web is that the informations from higher bed is passed on to the lower ATM defined beds. From these the info is passed on to the physical bed through a physical medium. The ATM protocol mention theoretical account is divided into three different beds. They are ATM adaptation bed. ATM bed. physical bed

ATM adaptation bed
The ATM adaptation bed ( AAL ) interfaces the higher bed protocols to the ATM bed. It relays ATM cells both from the upper beds and frailty versa. When the information is received from the higher beds them AAL divides the information in to little sections and direct them across the ATM. When information is received from the physical bed so the information that is in footings of little sections are collected and sent to higher beds via AAL. ATM bed

The map of the ATM bed is to supply the basic 53-byte cell format to the informations that passed down by the AAL by specifying it to 5-byte heading and the staying 48-byte as informations warhead. Physical bed

The map of the physical bed is that it act as a medium to reassign the informations between the bed as shown in the figure. And around the physical medium a framing is done to maintain the information content safe from the other external losingss.

INTERNET PROTOCOL
Internet Protocol ( IP ) is the primary web protocol used on the cyberspace. It was developed in the early old ages of 1970’s and was used together with conveyance control protocol and referred as TCP/IP. The map of the cyberspace protocol is to supply a alone reference for the computing machine that are connected through a web. There are two versions present with the IP. They are IPV4 and IPV6. the basic difference between them is the length of the reference. IPV4 have a four bytes ( 32bits ) length of reference where IPV6 has 16 bytes ( 128bits ) reference in length. The cell construction of the IP contains two parts they are

* IP heading
* IP information

Figure shows typical Internet Protocol construction
Internet protocol is neither a architecture nor a designed set of protocols it is merely a aet of protocols that are to followed for the transmittal of informations from beginning to finish. IP is a connectionless protocol and each clip when the information package travels it has make its ain once more to the finish reference and has to make it so every cell has got its ain heading infinite. And besides the reaching of the packages may be non in unvarying because as they follow connectionless path the timing may change at the each package reaching. Thus an recognition are given to each package at its heading file.

ATM versus IP
Table. 1. Differences between ATM and IP
ATM| IP|
In ATM routing is restricted for signaling messages ( merely cal apparatus period ) . | In IP each datagram is routed automatically. | It warrants and offers good quality of service. | In IP Quality of service ( QoS ) is non extremely offered and guaranteed. | Connection oriented| Connection less|


ATM can vouch the order because practical way is established before transmittal. | IP can non vouch the order as there is no connexion. Routing is done utilizing IP reference. | Links in ATM are extremely dependable. | No dependability in links is provided in IP. | Rate of cell loss and cell corruptness is less. | Cell loss may be high in transmittal. | As cells move in a sequence. holds such as traffic and queuing are experienced. | Delays are less when compared to ATM webs as they transmit utilizing specific references. | ATM follows exchanging in nexus bed. | IP follows routing in Network bed. | Congestion is less. | Congestion is more. |

Bandwidth efficiency is high. | Bandwidth use is flexible. | Adaptive in nature. | Flexible and Robust. [ 5 ] |

Therefore when both the webs are compared ATM is proved to be the most efficient web upon the cyberspace protocol. The success of the ATM lies mostly because of its ability to pull off informations traffic and utilizing largely IP over its web substructure. THEORETICAL Analysis

Before traveling with a practical attack. we should hold a expression issues to be sorted out. Voice transmittal is done through both the ATM and IP engineerings but in a different manner. both got its ain schemes in conveying the voice from beginning to the finish. When it comes through ATM it transmits the voice informations in a consecutive mode from beginning to the finish by set uping a practical way between them. The information that is sent over this practical way is routed in a sequence for avoiding some jobs. But where as in cyberspace protocol there will be no practical connexion between beginning and finish. An IP reference is given to each of the system that are on the web. Based on the precedence of the quality of service the packages incorporating informations are received at the finish side. Now lets have a expression which protocol is better in directing voice informations. Both have some typical jobs that are mentioned below.

* When compared in ATM traffic hold is more than IP.
* Baesd on the type of transmittal both the protocols have got their ain clip of response and efficiency in conveying the information.
* Congestion is more in IP when compared to ATM.

CONGESTION EFFECT
Congestion plays an exceptionally important portion in any kind of grid designing. So one needs to be carefull while composing a grid he needs to care for this kind of parametric quantities while making so. ATM will hold less issue with congestion in visible radiation of the fact that the transmittal of the information is finished with a practical manner in a back-to-back way. But when talk abouting on with the IP topology there is a considerable step of obstruction in visible radiation of the fact that it acclimates the most brief manner for the transmittal of the information from beginning to the finish. Therefore at that place needs to be an elected for this to be avoided. Seperate algoritms are improved in IP such that the transmittal is finished by manner of the longest manner that are ready with in the topology.

Fig. 5. Congestion in transmittal way.
Theoretically we have seen that IP is far better ATM. and now Lashkar-e-Taibas have a expression at the practical consequences that are obtained while executing the series of simulations utilizing the OPNET modeller.

PRACTICAL METHODOLOGY
Practically we are about to analyse these ATM and IP webs by making an illustration web topology.

Fig. 6. An illustration web topology.
The above grid topology comprises of two diverse beginnings with routers and terminals of the line in two figure in each. There is in add-on a message waiter to acquire messages and other waiter based material. we are to consolidation the profile. Applications and QOS based design scenes for both ATM and IP individually. After all these scenes DES is gathered for typical parametric quantities that are sent over the grid topology from beginning to the finish. Once the whole batch is associated and gathered we can run the state of affairss ( ATM & A ; IP ) by puting the diversion opportunity to and seed to 128.

After reproduction the effects might be gathered for needed parametric quantity in both ATM and IP and look into them sing Line uping defer. Through Put and Utilization. OPNET SIMULATIONS
A. ATM Network:

Fig. 7. ATM anchor web
The node theoretical account and nexus theoretical accounts for this ATM are besides shown below.

Fig. 8. Link theoretical account of ATM.
B. IP Network:

Fig. 9. IP Link theoretical account.
After the webs are created. they are simulated for a peculiar period of clip and consequences are collected in object statistics. VII. Result
1. The below graph dissipates line uping hold exhibited by both the ATM and IP scenarios. Fig. 10. Comparison of Queuing hold in IP and ATM. It unquestionably shows that line uping postpone in ATM is more when contrasted with IP. nevertheless its differing straightly heightened so subsequently decreasing. it is about to zero which is highly flat when contrasted with ATM and is exponentially spread outing. 2. The undermentioned figure shows package hold in both the scenarios.

Fig. 11. Packet hold fluctuation
Coming to roll up postpone it is exponentially spread outing in both state of affairss at the exact starting and has come to be steady in IP where as it is exponentially decreasing in ATM. Yet similarly ATM shows more bundle defer than IP. 3. The undermentioned figure shows Jitter hold in both ATM and IP scenarios.

Fig. 12. Jitter hold
It is unmistakably recognized that in jitter defer there is no much differentiation between ATM and IP yet merely clip passed in x hub of ATM yet straightly in y- pivot it is in the same tally of 0. 40. 4. The undermentioned graph shows the overall throughput of ATM and IP scenarios.

Fig. 13. Throughput in ATM and IP
There is little contrast between throughput in ATM and IP. Both are exponentially spread outing and stoping up being steady at certain indicate yet plainly it shows that throughput in ATM is coming to be dependable at 160. while in IP it is at 90. By this it might be inferred that Throughput in ATM is more. 5. The undermentioned figure shows the comparing of use in both scenarios.

Fig. 14. Point-to-point use
Decision
After itemized survey and working of both state of affairss ( ATM and IP ) systems topologies. it is inferred that IP is over determination ATM in deferral where as ATM is giving its best in throughput. use. till close- to-close transmittal. where as IP is best in Packet postpone and Queuing defer. Contrasting with the rate of the grids IP is quicker than ATM as the transmittal in it is highly rapid in IP as it utilizes IP location for conveyance of packages as there is no practical association between beginning and terminal. There are likewise certain choke offing issues in IP which are regulated utilizing tracking equations. and there is no choke offing state of affairs in ATM as shift of packages is finished in turn utilizing practical manner associations. Value of Service is deeply ensured in ATM on the evidences that it is systematically squarely comparative to packages gained where as in IP it is non copiously ensured. As an on the whole. IP is best and chiefly utilised within legion escapades. paces and so on. Both have their peculiar favourable fortunes and hinderances increasingly requisitions and are by and large suited for information. voice and film transmittals.

Mentions

1. Kasser. Sumith. 2007. “ATM Networks” . New York. Mc Graw-Hill. 2. Labrador. M. A. Banerjee. S. ( 2009 ) . “Packet dropping policies for ATM and IP networks” . [ Online ] . 2 ( 3 ) . P. 2-14. Available from: URL [ Accessed: 16. 12. 2012 ] . 3. Sudhir Dixit. Ramjee Prasad. 2003. “Wireless IP and Building the Mobile Internet” . London. Architec House Publishers. 4. World Wide Web. protocols. com/papers/voe. htm # voatm. accessed on 15th. December. 2012. 5. World Wide Web. wand. cyberspace. nz/pubs/20/html/node23. hypertext markup language. accessed on 15th. December. 2012.