African Americans ( American Blacks or Black Americans ) . racial group in the United States whose dominant lineage is from sub-Saharan West Africa. Many African Americans besides claim European. Native American. or Asiatic ascendants. A assortment of names have been used for African Americans at assorted points in history. African Americans have been referred to as Negroes. colored. inkinesss. and Afro-Americans. every bit good as lesser-known footings. such as the 19th-century appellation Anglo-African. The footings Negro and colored are now seldom used.
African American. black. and to a lesser extent African-american. are used interchangeably today. Recent black immigrants from Africa and the islands of the Caribbean are sometimes classified as African Americans. However. these groups. particularly first- and second-generation immigrants. frequently have cultural patterns. histories. and languages that are distinguishable from those of African Americans born in the United States. For illustration. Caribbean indigens may talk French. British English. or Spanish as their first linguistic communication.
Emigrants from Africa may talk a European linguistic communication other than English or any of a figure of African linguistic communications as their first linguistic communication. Caribbean and African immigrants frequently have small cognition or experience of the typical history of race dealingss in the United States. Therefore. Caribbean and African immigrants may or may non take to place with the African American community. Harmonizing to 2000 U. S. nose count. some 34. 7 million African Americans live in the United States. doing up 12. 3 per centum of the entire population. 2000 nose count shows that 54.
8 percent African Americans lived in the South. In that twelvemonth. 17. 6 per centum of African Americans lived in the Northeast and 18. 7 per centum in the Midwest. while merely 8. 9 per centum lived in the Western provinces. Almost 88 per centum of African Americans lived in metropolitan countries in 2000. With over 2 million African American occupants. New York City had the largest black urban population in the United States in 2000. Washington. D. C. . had the highest proportion of black occupants of any U. S. metropolis in 2000. with African Americans doing up about 60 per centum of the population.
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Atlantic Slave Trade. Atlantic Slave Trade. the forced transit of at least 10 million enslaved Africans from their fatherlands in Africa to finishs in Europe and the Americas during the 15th through 19th centuries. European and North American slave bargainers transported most of these slaves to countries in tropical and semitropical America. where the huge bulk worked as labourers on big agricultural plantations.
See Slavery. Between 1440 and 1880 Europeans and North Americans exchanged ware for slaves along 5600 kilometer ( 3500 stat mis ) of Africa’s western and west cardinal Atlantic seashores. These slaves were so transported to other locations around the Atlantic Ocean. The huge bulk went to Brazil. the Caribbean. and Spanish-speaking parts of South America and Central America. Smaller Numberss were taken to Atlantic islands. Continental Europe. and English-speaking countries of the North American mainland.
Approximately 12 million slaves left Africa via the Atlantic trade. and more than 10 million arrived. The Atlantic slave trade involved the largest intercontinental migration of people in universe history prior to the twentieth century. This transportation of so many people. over such a long clip. had tremendous effects for every continent surrounding the Atlantic. It deeply changed the racial. societal. economic. and cultural make-up in many of the American states that imported slaves.
It besides left a bequest of racism that many of those states are still fighting to get the better of. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Civil Rights Movement in the United States. political. legal. and societal battle by black Americans to derive full citizenship rights and to accomplish racial equality. The civil rights motion was foremost and foremost a challenge to segregation. the system of Torahs and imposts dividing inkinesss and Whites that Whites used to command inkinesss after bondage was abolished in the 1860s.
During the civil rights motion. persons and civil rights organisations challenged segregation and favoritism with a assortment of activities. including protest Marches. boycotts. and refusal to stay by segregation Torahs. Many believe that the motion began with the Montgomery coach boycott in 1955 and ended with the Voting Rights Act of 1965. though there is argument about when it began and whether it has ended yet. The civil rights motion has besides been called the Black Freedom Movement. the Negro Revolution. and the Second Reconstruction. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation.
All rights reserved. AAVE Distinctive forms of linguistic communication usage among African Americans arose as originative responses to the adversities imposed on the African American community. Slave-owners frequently deliberately assorted people who spoke many different African linguistic communications to deter communicating in any linguistic communication other than English on their plantations. Furthermore. many Whites were unwilling to let inkinesss to larn proper English. One response to these conditions was the development of pidgins. simplified mixtures of two or more linguistic communications that talkers of different linguistic communications could utilize to pass on with each other.
Some of these pidgins finally became to the full developed Creole linguistic communications spoken by certain groups as a native linguistic communication. Significant Numberss of people still speak some of these Creole linguistic communications. notably Gullah on the Sea Islands of South Carolina and Georgia. African American Vernacular English ( AAVE ) . besides called black English or Ebonics. is a idiom of English spoken by many African Americans that portions some characteristics with Creole linguistic communications. Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.