The pupils of International Tourism and Hospitality Management ( ITHM ) from SEGi University College went on a instance survey research at Penang Island from the 12th November to the fifteenth November. In these 3 three yearss and two darks survey, the pupils managed to question every bit many as 60 local occupants of the province to investigation and look into on the impact of touristry towards Penang Island.
Literature Review- Penang Island, A Place for Tourism and Heritage!
The chief ground why our survey trip chose Penang Island is because of the historical sites and heritage topographic points. Penang incorporates modernness with a touch of traditions and old universe appeal that is certain to capture the bosom of many tourers and travellers likewise. With George Town which was late listed as a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage Site makes sing Penang an even more eventful trip. Penang besides entices the tourers with its rich and plentiful delectable culinary arts and savory nutrient. Home to the Baba Nyonya posterities, this beautiful province is besides rich with civilizations and traditions all populating harmoniously under the one same roof!
Penang is located at the Northwest seashore of Peninsular Malaysia by the Straits of Malacca. It is the 2nd smallest province in Malaysia right after Perlis. The name Penang is really derived from a tree called Pokok Pinang that is widely found along the sea side of Penang Island. By and large the province of Penang could be sub divided into two geographicss ; the Penang Island and besides the Seberang Perai. Penang which is widely made out of hilly topography has a limited low land country for development hence the land renewal undertaking near the coastal country.
In an mean twenty-four hours, the temperature at this topographic point varies from 27 degree Celsius to 30 grade during the twenty-four hours clip while the dark clip promises a temperature from 22 degree Celsius to 24. Since Malaya is located on the Equator line, this topographic point has a really high humidness and the mean one-year rainfall is about 2670 millimeter.
All in all, the pupils of ITHM find that Penang Island is so filled with abundant of civilizations and traditions that many other topographic points in Malaysia is decidedly lack off. The civilization and heritage sites at these beautiful topographic points are still integral and maintained to flawlessness. Tourism undeniably has alteration the manner of life for the Penangites immensely.
Here I enclosed in the Itinerary of the whole 3D2N survey trip of ITHM pupils. ( *Refer to Appendix IV )
Questionnaire- Method of Data Collection
During the fieldtrip to Penang on the month of November, the pupils of ITHM manage to roll up a sum of 60 pieces of questionnaires per group on the impacts of touristry on Penang Island. Local occupants of Penang were informed of the study and requested to reply 10 simple inquiries sing on the issue.
The questionnaire consisted of 10 inquiries divided into three parts: Impacts of touristry on local environment, impact of touristry on local people- socio-cultural, and impact of touristry on local economic system. The replies to the inquiries are in the signifier of ‘Yes or No ‘ and could be ticked in boxes.
A sum of 60 respondents were found and they agreed wholeheartedly to assist us out on the mission to bring out the facts about touristry in Penang. Of the 60 respondents, the highest figure of responses agreed that Tourism Penang has so brought approximately positive feedback on the economic sciences of the province. Even though some respondents had trouble understanding the inquiries given, but we manage to screen it out by easy explicating to them on what the inquiries are all about.
The analysis of the response was done in two ways. We divided our group member into two units, where one unit is assigned to finish the ( I ) 30 pieces of questionnaire by inquiring local peddler peoples sentiment, whereas the staying ( two ) 30 pieces are distributed among the local occupants whom are non working at the current minute. Nonetheless all of whom answered the questionnaire were from the local people of Penang Island.
Tourism Development- Infrastructures
A Unlike any other provinces in Malaysia, Penang is labelled as one of the taking finish in the state today and many tourers who visited Malaysia would decidedly expect the visit to this really heritage site. The chief ground why Penang has been where it is today is chiefly because it besides has a better and more developed substructure than most of the other topographic points in the state.
A By and large there are two bowls located at Penang for the convenience of the locals every bit good as to pull tourers and foreigners to take portion in any athleticss event over here. The City Stadium or more normally known as Stadium Bandaraya Pulau Pinang is the first and oldest bowl which is still in usage up boulder clay today. It was built by the British in 1932 and of all time since so had become a popular topographic point for any football lucifers. The other bowl mentioned is the Penang State Stadium. This freshly completed bowl back at the twelvemonth 2000 has a capacity of 40, 000 witnesss.
A The following film editing border design substructure built in Penang is none other than the Geodesic Dome located at Komtar. A This progressive and progress looking dome is a multipurpose hall used for official maps, public presentations, province ‘s events and many other event intents. The design of this dome comes from the construct survey by R. Buckminster Fuller who is the maestro head behind this partial-spherical construction. The chief entryway to this dome is through the degree five roof top which merely makes it even more appealing to the tourers and visitants.
A A A A A A A A A A A In footings of main roads substructure, Penang is surely rather applaudable every bit good. Highwaies such as the Bayan Lepas Elevated Highway, Jelutong Expressway and Butterworth Outer Ring Road are the few freewaies constructed for the convenience of the car users. And allow us non bury about the advanced-looking Penang international airdrome. The Penang International Airport ( PEN ) is the chief airdrome for the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia. At present, the air hoses winging to the Penang International Airport includes AirAsia, Cathay Pacific, China Airlines, Firefly, Jetstar Asia, China Southern Airlines, Kartika Airlines, Lion Air, Malaysia Airlines, Silkair, Singapore Airlines, Sriwijaya Air, Thai Airways and Tiger Airways. This airdrome is besides known as the 4th biggest airdrome in Malaysia after KLIA, Kota Kinabalu International Airport and Kuching International Airport. It has besides been awarded as the Airport of the Year for 2009 Frost and Sullivan Asia Pacific Aerospace and Defence for airdromes for the class of below 15-million-passenger.
Economic Impact of Tourism
The chief economic development in Penang would most surely relies on the touristry sector as it turns out that this sector output major part towards the income and fiscal growing of the province. Based on the record by the Tourism Ministry, Penang has recorded a 40 per cent addition in the figure of international tourer reachings between January and June this twelvemonth ( 2010 ) . There were 405,932 tourers up till June, as compared to 244,146 in the same period last twelvemonth. Of the tourer reachings, Indonesians topped the list at over 92,000, followed by Singaporeans ( 51,392 ) , China ( 16,000 ) , Australia, Japan, Latin America and India ( 12,000 each ) , United States ( 10,000 ) and Middle East states ( 1,360 ) .
The economic benefits of touristry were readily acknowledged by research participants in this survey. About everyone interviewed agreed that touristry led to the creative activity of occupations and it slightly turns out to be the chief beginning of income for most of the household every bit good. Residents of the communities commented that touristry frequently brings about positive feedbacks on the economic sciences of the province and the criterion of life excessively. A occupant of the local neighbouring town said that, “ Without touristry, the economic system would be dead. ” Another occupant besides noted, “ With the being of touristry in Penang, we get to bask many top notch installations and substructures such as the better public transit system and the Penang bowl. ” For some there was a sense of certainty about the likeliness of touristry booming in this province. With so many demands from tourers all over the universe, irrespective of domestic or international, many believed that touristry was expected to take topographic point whether or non local occupants desired it.
The Swettenham Cruise Terminal which was late renovation has added an excess entry point into the island. Based on the statistic from Penang Economics Monthly April 2010 Issue 4.10, it states that in twelvemonth 2009, a sum of 680, 000 sail riders are recorded to hold arrived in Penang. It has been estimated that this twelvemonth at least 890, 000 Numberss of tourers will turn up. “ The mean sail rider spends anyplace between US $ 85 ( rm280 ) to US $ 115 ( rm350 ) a twenty-four hours when they come on land. That ‘s non bad sing they are in Penang for less than 12 hours. Penang ‘s the perfect finish for sail riders with limited clip, the minute they step off the wharf, they ‘re already in a World Heritage Site, ” said Battistotti, PGT manager, who is besides the president of the Malaysian Association of Hotels ( Penang chapter ) and the General Manager of G Hotel.
Another factor that contributes to Penang ‘s booming economic from the touristry sector is no uncertainty the Tourism Malaysia ‘s active ‘courtship ‘ of the Middle Eastern market. It has been clear that 11th September incidence is a important factor act uponing the addition of Middle Eastern tourer reachings to Malaysia. There are nevertheless other factors such as tourer disbursals in Malaysia, tourist income, going disbursals and the criterion of life in this state that affect immensely on the figure of tourers reachings every bit good. Based on the work done by Norlida Hanim Mohd Salleh ( 2010, pp. 37-52 ) , she reference that, “ The importance of the Middle East tourers to the Malayan touristry industry can be viewed from several indexs such as figure of tourer reachings, touristry grosss, the mean length of stay and potency of future touristry market. ” She besides mentioned that the mean disbursement of the Middle Easterners have a higher buying power than other tourers over here. Harmonizing to the instance survey, the mean outgo of the Middle Easterners was RM3, 503 during the twelvemonth 2003 whereas tourers from other topographic points merely spent RM2, 013.
In general, touristry has a assortment of economic impact on the Penang Island. All these could be explained utilizing the Multiplier Effects Theory. From the work done by Daniel J. Stynes ( 1997, pp. 11-14 ) , he mentioned that ;
The most direct effects occur within the primary touristry sectors — housing, eating houses, transit, amusements, and retail trade. Through secondary effects, touristry affects most sectors of the economic system… The survey might utilize a gross revenues multiplier of 2.0 to bespeak that each dollar of direct gross revenues generates another dollar in secondary gross revenues in this part.
This clearly shows us that touristry the chief the consequence of this Multiplier theory where with touristry it brings about the development of other industries as good such as eating houses, shopping promenades, and subject Parkss.
However there are still legion negative impacts of touristry for Penang Island. For one, a state that relies on touristry industry entirely as their chief beginning of gross could be hazardous and unsafe. Economic dependance should ever be various and all-rounded in order for a province to thrive and boom. This is because touristry concern is really seasonal. During extremum season, tourer reachings will increase enormously particularly during the twelvemonth terminal period. Conversely the figure of tourer will dropped drastically during off-peak season. And this can post immerse danger to the province ‘s well-being as it might make a high rate of unemployment.
Environment Impacts of Tourism
A It is of import to understand that although touristry has boosted the economic sciences of Penang immensely but one shall ne’er bury on the value of the environment and natural home ground of the really island. For what we know, land is a really scarce resource in Penang Island. This is chiefly due to the fact that Penang is mostly made up of hilly topography and most of the low land country has already been accommodated and developed.
A Based on the research done by Ngai Weng Chan ( 1998, pp: 305-318 ) , he besides mentioned that the attempts at industrialisation and the development of other economic sectors had conveying about the betterment of the province ‘s urbanisation. Unfortunately this had besides caused greater force per unit area on the land use. As a consequence, the Government act upon on the land renewal as a solution but it is still non plenty to fulfill the high demand for land in the island. At present, many developers have already resort to the staying hill land and besides the renewal country on the island for their following immense undertakings. Example of such undertaking would be the Waterfront City Project ( *refer to appendix I ) , which represents one of the highest proportions of leisure-based services anyplace in South East Asia. Promising as it may look, this undertaking which is to be built on the 338 estates of rescued land along Penang ‘s eastern coastline will majorly impact on the status and position of the island ‘s well-being. To get down with, puting fill in a renewal country could upset the H2O quality of the bordering sea every bit good as endangering the booming being of fish stocks and home grounds found in coastal seas and linking lochs and lagunas.
Another illustration of undertaking built without the attentiveness and consideration of the environmental issues would be the Tanjung Bungah suburb which is situated between Georgetown and Batu Ferringhi. This small town was built at the hill land countries which could post many dangers to the environment and besides on the dwellers over at that place. Based on the diary written by Adrian M. Steinberg ( 2010, pp. 318-340 ) , he mentioned that, “ There are many environment hazard by undertaking at hill site countries in Tanjung Bungah, Batu Ferringhi. ” Tanjung Bungah used to be a peaceable small town merely lodged by little groups of households and fishermen. However over the old ages, many immense corporate chose this really topographic point to construct commercial edifices for touristry intents. Example of these recreational constructions includes the Tanjung Bungah Floating Mosque and besides the Penang Water Sport Centres. Hence, the quality of the sea H2O deteriorates due to the discharge of natural sewerage and the resulting pollution makes it a genteelness land for jelly fish. As a consequence, the sea all along the northern belt is no longer suited for swimming any longer.
A Penang Hill which is another celebrated tourer finish topographic point is an illustration of touristry development at hill land country. Located high above the land, Penang Hill is perfect as a vacation sanctuary due to the breezy and ice chest environment. The province Government permitted this development because it brings Forth higher pecuniary and financial policy to the province ‘s economic system. Based on another instance survey by Ngai Weng Chan ( 1998, pp. 14-27 ) , he mentioned that, “ Massive hill development, particularly the glade of flora and the film editing of hill inclines will convey approximately increased and accelerated run-off, increased dirt eroding and a high chance of landslides and landslides. In the event of heavy rainfall, such as that which coincided with Tropical Storm Ryan on 18 September 1995, landslides and landslides would happen. In fact, a sum of about 60 landslides were reported along roads on Penang Hill and its locality after the heavy rainfall during the above storm. ” This clearly shows that without a proper planning and readying, many accidental events might happen.
Paya Terubong used to be a preponderantly agriculture country. As the old ages gone by, it easy turns into a propertyless vicinity in the cardinal portion of Penang Island. Based on a instance survey by Ngai Weng Chan ( 1998, pp. 14-27 ) , he found that there is a sum of 60 landslides reported along the roads of Penang Hill after the destructive Tropical Storm Ryan which happened back at 18 September 1995. Landslides non merely harm the occupants of an country but, in fact, it post enormous dangers to automobilists every bit good. In add-on, it might foul the river and in long-run tally, may consequences in inundation at low land country. The monolithic enlargement undertaking at Paya Terubong is the most evident illustration of hill land development at Penang which is instead an unprompted and foolish action. The undertaking which largely accentuate on lodging, substructure and a new township is really one of the chief tourer attractive force at Penang Island at current. Harmonizing to the Malayan Law nevertheless, hill land with inclines of more than 20 grades should be safeguard and conserved in its natural province, by and large as a wood militias. Ngai besides stated in his instance survey that the Paya Terubong hill land development is a major failure of the province island by stating, “ Harmonizing to the Consumer Association of Penang ( in its April 1996 issue ) , the Paya Terubong lodging undertaking is an invitation to a catastrophe, perchance comparing the Majestic Heights as similar to the Highland Towers which collapsed in 1993. Soon after this study, the extended mudflows occurred in early May 1996. Chan ( 1997 ) has demonstrated how rapid development on the hill slopes of the Paya Terubong vale in Penang has given rise to landslides, mudflows, deposit of rivers and downstream implosion therapy. ” ( *refer to Appendix II )
Culture and Heritage Impacts of Tourism
Even though the official faith of the state and province is Islam, the occupants in Penang are all given the freedom and rights to follow on their personal beliefs. Buddhism is still the chief faith over here. As such, the Peranakan or more normally known as the Baba Nyonyas made 5 % out of the 2 million occupants of Penang. The Baba Nyonya is really a descendant of the Chinese immigrants who partly adopt Malay imposts with a touch of Chinese as good. This made the Penang Island rich with an abundant of civilizations and traditions. For Penang Global Tourism ‘s ( PGT ) new pull offing manager Ooi Geok Ling, she exclaimed that if she were to depict Penang as a dish, she would travel for the Rojak ;
“ All the single fruits and vegetables retain their individuality, and the rojak sauce brings everything together. This is what makes Penang so alone, our diverseness and our pride in being Penangites. ”
This clearly indicates that Penang has a presence of people from so many ethnicities and faiths populating together in harmoniousness. All these could be reflected in the many celebrations that are being celebrated throughout the twelvemonth, runing from the Chinese New Year to the Indian Festival, Thaipusam. Besides, Pesta Pulau Penang which is an one-year carnival event makes the metropolis all vibrant and vibrant.
Besides that, Penang is besides celebrated with the Dragon Boat Festival. Since 1979, it has been a civilization to keep the International Dragon Boat Festival over the Teluk Bahang Dam. Besides pulling international tourers during the period of this event, this astonishing festival besides strengthens and tightens the bonds between the each and every citizen. Another singular festival held annually over this province would none other be the Chingay Festival. This interesting event which all started back at 1919 to observe on the birthday of Kuan Yin, the Goddess of Mercy displays a fantastic act of accomplishment in the signifier of a emanation. ( *refer to Appendix III )
George Town ‘s entry into the Unesco World Heritage Sites listing is a large acknowledgment of Penang ‘s alone history. This large acknowledgment was declared back at July 2008. George Town which was one if the first British settlements to be established back many old ages ago is so filled with many historical sites. Besides that, Penang is besides celebrated for many other historical sites that some even dated back at centuries ago. All these factors contributed to the lifting Numberss of tourer reachings into the province regardless of domestic or non-domestic.
After all the probes done on the impact of touristry on Penang Island, we found that touristry has indefinitely brought approximately many alterations to the used-to-be-peaceful island. The most evident alterations would decidedly be on the environment of the island. Noted as one of the best and most restful finish in Malaysia, Penang was one time a really calm and quieting topographic point to vacation at. Currently nevertheless, many unplanned and unorganised development had cause many environment debasement.
In footings of province ‘s economic, there is no uncertainty that touristry plays a major function in prolonging the pecuniary of the state. Tourism brings positive impact on economic system by supplying more occupation employment for the local peoples.
With proper action and attention from the Government and the occupants of the province. Penang will decidedly go on to boom and bloom into a more olympian and brilliant province in Malaya!